Understanding Rhetorical Terms

  1. -A story, poem, or picture in which symbols can be interpreted to reveal a hidden meaning, typically moral truths or political ones.
  2. -The repetition of the same initial letter or the same sound in closely succeeding words.
  3. -An expression designed to call something to mind without mention it explicitly; an indirect mention, casual reference, or passing reference.
  4. -A word, phrase, or statement which contains more than one meaning. Ambiguous words or statements lead to vagueness and confusion, and shape the basis for instances of unintentional humor.
  5. -A comparison between two things, typically for the purpose of explanation or clarification; A correspondence in relations between different objects; A thing that is comparable to something else in significant respects.
  6. -The deliberate repetition of a word or phrase of the first part of the sentence in order to achieve an artistic effect.
  7. -A brief and amusing or interesting story of an entertaining character, usually about some notable person or event.
  8. -The noun (a word, phrase, clause, or sentence) to which relative or personal pronoun refers; anything that goes before.
  9. -A contrast or opposition  of thoughts, opinion, concept, or characteristic. Usually in two phrases, clauses, or sentences.
  10. -A concise statement of a scientific principle, typically by an ancient classic author. A brief observation that contains a general truth, such as, “if it ain’t broke, don’t fix it.”
  11. -An exclamatory passage in a speech or poem addressed to a person (typically one who is dead or absent) or thing (typically one that is personified).
  12. -The omission or absence of a conjunction between parts of a sentence.
  13. -A literary technique, atmosphere is a type of feeling that readers get from a narrative, based on details such as setting, background, objects, and foreshadowing. The pervading tone or mood of a place, situation, or work of art.
  14. -A rhetorical or literary figure in which words, grammatical constructions, or concepts are repeated in reverse order, in the same or a modified form.
  15. -A group of words that has both a subject and a verb, but (unlike an independent clause) cannot stand alone as a sentence because something about it implies that there is more to come. On its own, a dependent clause is left hanging, its meaning incomplete. It must be combined with an independent clause in order to form a complete sentence.
    Dependent Clause
  16. -A group of words made up of a subject and a predicate. Unlike a dependent clause, an independent clause is grammatically complete--that is, it can stand alone as a sentence. An independent clause is also known as a main clause or a superordinate clause.
    Independent Clause
  17. -The use of informal words, phrases, or even slang in a piece of writing.
  18. -A literary technique that refers to logical connections, which listeners or readers perceive in an oral or written text. In other words, it is a written or spoken piece that is not only consistent and logical, but also unified and meaningful. It makes sense when read or listened to as a whole. The structure of a _________ paragraph could be general to particular and particular to general or any other format.
  19. -A literary and rhetorical term for an elaborate or stained figure of speech, usually a metaphor or simile. Also called a strained metaphor or radical metaphor. Originally used as a synonym for “idea” or “concept,” _________ refers to a particularly fanciful figurative device that’s intended to surprise and delight readers by its cleverness and wit.
  20. -Refers to the emotional implications and associations that a word may carry, in contrast to its denotative (or literal) meanings. The __________ of a word can be positive, negative, or neutral. It can also be either cultural or personal.
  21. -Refers to the direct or dictionary meaning of a word, in contrast to its figurative or associated meanings that the word suggests (connotations). The action or process of indicating or referring to something by means of a word, symbol, etc.
  22. -A repetition of a phrase or word, broken up by other intervening words. In a ____, the repeated words are separated by the addition of new words placed between them, which can either or enhance the meaning.
  23. -A writer or speaker’s word choice that helps define the written or spoken word and express your style.
  24. The Different Types of Diction!!!

    1. ________- formal words are used in formal situations, such as press conferences and presentations.

    2._________- uses informal words and conversation, such as writing or talking to friends.

    3.__________- uses words common in everyday speech, which may be different in different regions or communities.

    4._________- the use of words that are newly coined, or even impolite.
    • 1. Formal Diction
    • 2. Informal Diction
    • 3. Colloquial Diction
    • 4. Slang Diction
  25. -Intended to teach, particularly in having moral instruction an an ulterior motive. The word ‘_______’ is frequently used for those literary texts that are overloaded with informative or realistic matter, and are marked by omission of graceful and pleasing details.
  26. -A rhetorical term for the listing of details--a type of amplification and division. In classical rhetoric, ________ was considered part of the arrangement (dispositio) of a speech and was often included in the peroration (or closing part of an arguement).
  27. -A word or phrase used to fill out a sentence or a line of verse without adding to the sense. “Rather than providing a grammatical or structural meaning as the other structure-word classes do, the _______ —sometimes defined as 'empty words'—generally act simply as operators that allow us to manipulate sentences in a variety of ways."(Martha Kolln, Understanding English Grammar, 1998)
  28. -A polite expression used in place of words or phrases that otherwise might be considered harsh or unpleasant to hear.
  29. -A statement or type of composition intended to give information about (or an explanation of) an issue, subject, method, or idea. It’s the writer’s opportunity to give background information to the reader or listener about the setting, establish the theme and introduce the characters.
  30. -Refers to a comparison between two unlike things that continues throughout a series of sentences in a paragraph, or lines in a poem. It is often comprised of more than one sentence, and sometimes consists of a full paragraph.
    Extended metaphor
  31. -A category of art, music, or literature.
  32. -A speech or sermon given by a priest in a Roman Catholic Church after a scripture has been read. The purpose of the homily is to provide insight into the meaning  of the scripture and relate it to the lives of the parishioners of the church. A _____ may also be a long speech given by a lay person to teach a moral lesson.
  33. -An unreal exaggeration to emphasize the real situation; an extravagant situation. A form of irony.
  34. -A rhetorical term for a strategy in which a speaker or writer raises a question and then immediately answers it. ______ is commonly regarded as a type of rhetorical question.
  35. -A vivid descriptive language that appeals to one or more of the senses (sight,  hearing, touching, smell, and taste). ______ also needs the aid of figures of speech like simile, metaphor, personification, and onomatopoeia, in order to appeal to the bodily senses.
Card Set
Understanding Rhetorical Terms
"Once you get cool with yourself this whole world seems a whole lot less lonely." -John O'Callaghan