1. kyrie
    the first part of the mass ordinary
  2. guillaume de machaut
    first compose we know of to compose a music for complete polyphonic mass ordinary by himself (in the 14th century)
  3. isorhythms
    a technique of composition which utilizes a rhythmic structure (talea) and a melodic structure (color) of differing lengths in combination with each other to create interesting musical structures.
  4. council of trent
    A response by the Catholic church to the reformation where a variety of reforms were implemented. In music, the church demanded greater clarity in the presentation of text. The music was to serve the text.
  5. musical elements of work painting
    • 1. Repeated octaves on a single pitch in the opening. (horse running, frantic state, heartbeat)
    • 2. Descending repetitions in bass of the piano in the opening (hurtling through the forest, anxiety, laboured breathing of the ill child)
    • 3. Minor mode at beginning signifies generally negative state of affairs.
    • 4. Change to major and change in accompaniment when the Erlking speaks, indicate the seductive nature of his offer.
  6. liturgy
    a groupĀ of texts that is used in conjunction with a public religious service
  7. mass
    a particular service in the Roman Catholic liturgy which celebrates communion
  8. mass ordinary
    the parts of the liturgy of the mass that are always performed during a mass service
  9. overture
    Music written to introduce the opera. It sometimes contains hints of music that will show up later in the main body of the opera or sometimes just freely composed music which evokes a particular mood or character to get the audience in the right frame of mind before the opera really begins.
  10. recitative
    • music designed to replace conversation in the drama
    • There are two main types: Secco and Accompagnato
  11. Secco (Italian for "dry")
    accompanied only by one or at the most a few instruments playing simple chords
  12. Accompagnato (Italian for "accompanied")
    this type sounds more sung than spoken and is accompanied by a larger contingent of the orchestra or sometimes by the whole orchestra
  13. aria
    This is a piece of music that is sung by one character. It usually occurs at a point in the opera where a character is reflecting on her/his situation (kind of like a soliloquy in Shakespeare).
  14. ensemble
    Similar to an aria but involves more characters singing at the same time. (2 people: duet, 3 people: trio, 4 people: quartet, 5 people: quintet, etc.)
  15. program music
    Music whose meaning is to some extent dictated by extra-musical associations. Often these associations are with literature in the form of poetry, stories, and myths reference by the composer in the title of the music or in quotation in the musical score.
  16. symphonic poem
    A short to moderately long orchestral work with an extra-musical program. In symphonic poems, words (titles, quotations, references to literary works or historical events) serve to help illuminate and interpret the musical text in a reversal of the process in art song, where music serves to illuminate the text.
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