What is motivation?
"...an inner state that energises, channels and sustains human behaviour to achieve goals"
What is tourist motivation?
"The total network of biological and cultural forces which give value and direction to travel choice, behaviour and experience"
What are needs, wants, motives, goals, and desires?
- Needs - deficiency in terms of requirement
- Want - those needs that a person is aware of
- Motive - an unobservable inner force that stimulates adn compels action to satisfy a want (why we do things)
- Goals - sought after objectives of motivation (motives are built around goals and solutions)
- Desires - passions that involve longing and fervent wishing for something
What is the link between motives and rewards?
- "A reward is presented after the occurrence of an action (behaviour) with the intent to cause the behviour to occur again"
- repetitive action-reward combination can cause the action to become a habit
- rewards can be intrinsic or extrinsic
What are intrinsic rewards?
- Internal to the person
- e.g. satisfaction or a feeling of accomplishment
What are extrinsic rewards?
- External to the person
- e.g. praise or money
What are some components of tourism and leisure demand?
- Work commitments
- Family life cycle stage
- Health & well-being
Why study tourist motivation in travel and leisure?
- Provide clues as to effective promotional strategies
- Provide clues as to effective product design
- Increasing likelihood of achieving visitor satisfaction
Who are the stakeholders in motivation studies?
- Destination marketing organisations
- Transport providers
- Accommodation & attraction providers
- Event Planners
- Providers of leisure facilities
What are some factors that shape tourist motivation?
- Past experiences
- Life cycle stage
What is Maslows Heirarchy of Needs?
- Physiological - breathing, food, water, sex, sleep
- Safety - security of body, employment, resources, morality, family, health, property
- Love/Belonging - friendship, family, sexual intimacy
- Esteem - self-esteem, confidence, achievement respect of and by others
- Self Actualization - morality, creativity, spontaneity, problem solving, lack of prejudice
What are the four premises of Maslow's Heirarchy?
- 1. All humans acquire a similar set of motices through genetic endowment and social interaction
- 2. Some motives are more basic or critical than others
- 3. The more basic motives must be satisfied to a minimum level before other motives are activated
- 4. As the basic motive become satisfied, more advanced motives come into play
What relevance does Maslows Heirarchy have to leisure?
Where does leisure fall under the needs heirarchy?
- Provides a framework for describing when and under what conditions leisure is important
- Leisure is unimportant until at least the physiological, safety and security needs have been satisfied
- Leisure is seen as important for the satisfaction of social, self-esteem, ego and self actualization needs
What are the three criticisms of Maslows Heirarchy?
- The application is too simplistic: It is possible for the same product or activity to satisfy every need
- Culture-bound: The assumptions of hte hierarchy may be restricted to Western culture
- Emphasizes individual needs over group needs: Individuals in some cultures place more value on the welfare of the group than individually
What was Dann (1977) the first to identify?
The role of push and pull factors - push always precede pull
What are the two dominant push factors under Dann's theory?
Anomie and Ego-enhancement
What is the Anomie push factor described by Dann?
- Anomie - the need to escape routine & the isolation of day to day life, a desire to get away from it all
What is the Ego-enhancement push factor described by Dann?
Ego-enhancement - the need for recognition, which can be obtained as a result of the status associated with travel
Under Crompton's theory (1979), what are the 7 push factors?
- Exploration & evaluation of self
- Enhancement of relationships
- Social Interaction
Under Cromton's theory, what are the two pull factors?
What are some challenges in measuring motivation?
- People may not wish to reveal true motivations
- people may have difficulty in recognising motives
- People may be unwilling to particpate meaningfully
- People may have conflicting motives
- Contradictions between motives and actions
- Multiple motivations
- Shared motivations and influence over others
What are emotions?
"Affective responses that reflect the activation within the consumer of beliefs that are deep-seated and value-laden"
What are the three dimensions under which emotions can be classified?
What are some emotions that fall under the dimension of Pleasure?
What are some emotions that fall under the dimension of Arousal?
What are some emotions that fall under the dimension of Dominance?
What are moods?
"An affective state that is general and persuasive"
What two settings are consumer moods induced in?
- Service encounters - transaction mechanics, service personnel, physical setting
- Marketing - media placement (meduim is part of the message) message aspects (claims, emotional music, pictures)