1. The location on an enzyme where the substrate enters and the reaction occurs.
    Active Site
  2. Amount of energy required for a reaction to start. The amount of energy required is decreased if a catalyst (enzyme) is present.
    Activation Energy
  3. The building block of a polypeptide, and the basic unit of a protein. There are 20 different amino acids, and the difference is in the R-group (side group).
    Amino Acid
  4. A substance that decreases the amount of activation energy required to start a chemical reaction. Catalysts speed up the rate of a reaction.
  5. Polysaccharide composed of glucose. Glucoses are arranged to make a fiber that is used by plants for structure and support.
  6. 2 sugar monomers that are linked together. Sucrose (table sugar) is a common _____________.
  7. A protein that acts as a catalyst. _________ are proteins that speed the rate of a reaction by lowering the activation energy required to start the reaction.
  8. A common monosaccharide. _________ is the main source of energy for plants and animals. ___________ can be found in the form of polysaccharides like starch (plants), cellulose (plants), and glycogen (animals).
  9. A polysaccharide made of glucose. ____________ is found in animals and stores energy for the muscles and liver
  10. A reaction that breaks a polymer into smaller units. A water molecule is also broken in this process. It is the reverse of a dehydration reaction.
    Hydrolysis Reaction
  11. Not composed of carbon.
  12. A large hydrophobic molecule that is used in the body for cushioning, insulation, or long-term energy storage.
  13. Small, single unit that can be combined with others to form a polymer by using dehydration reactions.
  14. A single sugar molecule. Glucose is one of the most common _________ on earth.
  15. Carbon based molecule. Polymer - a large molecule that is made of monomers.
  16. Chain of amino acids. Twisted into the proper shape are a protein.
  17. A chain of many monosaccharides (single sugars) linked together.
  18. Performs most of the functions with in a cell. These are composed of 1 or more polypeptides wrapped in a precise shape.
  19. A polysaccharide used by plants to store energy.
  20. A lipid tail that has the maximum amount of hydrogens. Each starch -Polysaccharide used by plants for energy storage.
  21. Lipid molecule that is made from cholesterol that serves to send messages from 1 cell to another, evoking responses in other parts of the organism.
  22. The substance(s) that is/are acted upon by the enzyme.
  23. A lipid tail. Liquid at room temp. At least one carbon is double bonded.
  24. Typically have long chains of C's and H's *Cholesterol/Steroids - 4 rings(hexagons or pentagons) that share sides with each other.
  25. Have a Carbon in the middle, NH on one side, H on the top, CO and OH on the 3rd side and the R group on the last side.
    Amino Acid
  26. 5 or 6 carbons in a ring (hexagon or pentagon).
  27. Straight chain of glucose
    Starch (polysaccharide)
  28. Branched chain of glucose.
    Glycogen (polysaccharide)
  29. Network of glucoses that are linked together like a rope.
    Cellulose (polysaccharide)
  30. Why is an enzyme's shape important?
    The shape of the enzyme is very important to how it reacts. If the shape is changed, then the substrate cannot enter the active site. If the substrate cannot enter the active site, then the enzyme cannot work to catalyze the reaction.
  31. Is water an organic molecule? Why or why not?
    No, because it doesn't contain carbon.
  32. Which of the following terms is the most general: polysaccharide, carbohydrate, monosaccharide, or glycogen.
    Carbohydrate. All sugars are carbohydrates, and these are all types of sugars.
Card Set