2. The appearance of an organism is its...
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  9. To determine the genotype of an individual that shows the dominant phenotype, you would cross that individual with one that is...
    homozygous recessive
  10. A white mouse whose parents are both white produces only brown offspring when mated with a brown mouse. The white mouse is most probably...
    homozygous recessive
  11. In a two-factor cross between an individual with the genotype RRYY and an individual with the genotype rryy, all of the offspring will have the genotype...
  12. A segment of DNA that controls a particular hereditary trait is called a...
  13. The genetic makeup of an organism is called its...
  14. Having two similar, dominant alleles for a trait is called...
    homozygous dominant
  15. A cross between two plants that have pink flowers produced plants that have red, pink, or white flowers. What is the most likely explanation for these results?
    incomplete dominance
  16. An organism in which two alleles for a trait are different is...
  17. The phenotype of an organism is...
    physical appearance
  18. Tallness (T) is dominant to shortness (t) in pea plants. What is the genotype of a pea plant that is heterozygous for tallness?
    Tt (the genotype)
  19. An individual heterozygous for a trait and an individual homozygous recessive for the trait are crossed and produce offspring that are of ___ different phenotypes.
  20. A scientist crossed a tall pea plant with a short pea plant. All of the four hundred offspring produced were tall pea plants. Explain these results.
    The tall pea plant is homozygous dominant and the short pea plant is homozygous recessive.
  21. A family has eight children. Six children have second toes that are longer than the big toe. Two children have second toes that are shorter than the big toe. What are the most likely genotypes of the parents?
    • heterozygous parents 
    • Ex.) Dd, Dd
  22. A homozygous individual would have what possible genotype?
    • *The two traits (letters) need to be the same, whether they are both dominant (all capital letters) or recessive (all lower-case letters) traits.
    • Ex.) AA, cc, DD, cc
  23. If two parents with dominant phenotypes produce an offspring with a recessive phenotype, what can you say about the parents?
    Both of the parents are heterozygous
  24. In a monohybrid cross (the smaller punnet square) between two heterozygous parents, one would expect the offspring to be...
  25. A man with a certain syndrome marries a woman who is normal for that trait. They have 6 children, three girls and three boys. All three of the girls have the same syndrome as the father whereas none of the boys are affected. Which type of heredity is not possible here?
  26. Nondisjunction is related to a number of serious human disorders. How does nondisjunction cause these disorders?
    Nondisjunction alters the chromosome number because they failed to separate.
  27. What occurs during the process of meiosis in humans that can lead to a child with the condition of Down Syndrome?
    Chromosomes at the twenty-first pair fail to separate causing three chromosomes as the twenty-first pair.
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