biochem ch 1

  1. 4 major types/classes of biological molecules:
     These are macromolecules (or polyanions).
    • 1) proteins
    • 2) carbohydrates
    • 3) lipids
    • 4) nucleic acids
  2. describe the 4 major types of bio molecules
    • 1) Proteins are 1 or more chains of amino acids: Amino acids contain both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups.
    • 2) carbohydrates: Cm(H2O)n (where m may be different from n).
    • 3) Lipids (oleaginous) are chiefly fatty acid esters
    • 4) Nucleic acids: composed of nucleotides
  3. what's a carboxylic acid functional group?
    • R–COOH
    • 150px-Carboxylic-acid.svg
  4. What are aminos?
    contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair. Amines are formally derivatives of ammonia, wherein one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by a substituent such as an alkyl or aryl group[4](these may respectively be called alkylamines and arylamines; amines in which both types of substituent are attached to one nitrogen atom may be called alkylarylamines)
  5. what do amino/amine/s look like?
    • RNH2, R2NH, R3N
    • Primary 100px-Primary-amine-2D-general.svg
    • secondary100px-Secondary-amine-2D-general.svg
    • tertiary100px-Amine-2D-general.svg
  6. what's an ester group like those in lipid fatty acid esters?
    • 130px-Ester-general.svg
    • at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group RCOOR
  7. Nucleic acids are composed of nucleotides, which are monomers made of three components:
    • 1) a 5-carbon sugar,
    • 2) a phosphate group and a 
    • 3) nitrogenous base
    • Ribos sugar=RNA, deoxyribose=DNA
  8. Class and name ROH, --OH
    alcohols, Name: hydroxyl
  9. Class and name of RCHO (-CHO)
    Class: aldehydes, name carbonyl
  10. what is the R for?
    R group is any generic alkyl or side chain
  11. class and name for ROR connected to two alkyl or aryl groups.
    Class: Ether, ether
Card Set
biochem ch 1
biochemistry ch 1