psychology 3

  1. Globalization-

    -rising prices 
    - year round availability of produce
    - growing economic interdependence
    - increased unemployment
  2. second term

    _______- one axis is linear (1,2,3,) while other axis is log scale (0.1, 0.01, 0.001)

    ______- both axis uses traditional (1,2,3)

    ______ - both axis use ratio log scale (10,100,1000, 10000)

    first term - logarithmic if straight diagonal line and sigmoidal if S shaped


  3. traits that signify overall good health and well-being of an organism making it more attractive to mates.
    indicator traits
  4. The _____ coined by Howard Waitzkin refers to the fact that disparities in health outcome are exacerbated by social inequalities or social injustice
    second sickness
  5. the ____ nucleus carries fine touch and proprioceptive information from upper body to thalamus
    cuneate nucleus
  6. ________ model states that people are more likely to respond aggressively to others when feeling negative emotions such as being tired, sick, frustrated, or pain.
    Cognitive neo association model
  7. _______ the repetition of a piece of information to keep it within working memory (prevent from forgetting), or store it in short term or eventually long term memory
    maintenance rehearsal
  8. The perception of a stimulus below a threshold, usually the threshold of conscious perception
    subliminal perception
  9. the process of conditioning a behavior by rewarding successive approximations of the behavior
  10. process of putting new info into memory by means of listening to the information
    acoustic encoding
  11. damage to ventromedial hypothalamus- overeating 

    damage to lateral hypothalamus- lack of eating
  12. ________ explains the fear of rejection that makes individuals switch ideas to fit into a group
    identity shift effect
  13. magnoceulluar cells - detect motion

    pacanian corpuscle - respond to deep pressure and vibration
  14. This is used to explain how ppl are able to quickly sort through a wide variety of info to match a pattern and come to a decision when faced with a complex situation 

    ex- firefighter knows structure bout to collapse thanks to years of experience in similar situation
    recognition primed decision model
  15. movements

    proactive- promote change
    reactive- resist change
  16. piaget 

    0-2 sensory motor- manipulate environment for physical needs, circular reactions, object permeance

    2-7 preoperational - egocentrism, pretend play, symbolic thinking, centration (focus on one aspect of phenomenon) 

    7-11: concrete operations- conservation, consider other perspectives, logic

    12- beyond- formal operations- abstract
  17. ________ are unexplained neurological symptoms such as numbness or incontinence that appear after traumatic experience
    conversion disorder
  18. attribution (situational / dispositional) - others actions

    locus of control (our own actions internal/ external)
  19. negative symptom schizophrenia

    - blunting - reduced affect
    - avolition - is the decrease in the motivation to initiate and perform self-directed purposeful activities
    - inappropriate affect
  20. Jungian archetypes

    little boy supressed feminine quality - anima

    Animus is the archetype of reason and spirit in women. This is the male aspect of the female psyche

    Alfred alder:

    Alder's creative self- how individuals create their personalities

    Alder's fictional finalism- individuals are more motivated by expectations of future than past experiences
  21. Bundle of neurons that connect brocas area and wernickes area
    Arcuate fasciculus
  22. self sabatoge vs learned helplessness

    learned helplessness is outside factors
  23. Vgotskys zone of proximal development - skills and abilities that one doesnt have but is developing , gaining these skills successfully requires the help of a more knowledgeable other
  24. this develops into...

    endoderm- lining of GI and resipratory tracts

    neural crest- peripheral nervous system and other organs

    neural tube- CNS

    Alar plate - many of the sensory neurons
  25. movement of middle class to primarily suburban areas
  26. contributes only a small % of variance = low heritability
  27. an impression management strategy making questionable behavior acceptable through excuses
    aligning actions
  28. An impression management strategy in which one imposes an identity onto another person.

    ex- student tells teacher i thought you'd understand since you're a great professor to get out of being late for paper
  29. organization shifts its focus towards efficacy
  30. systems naturally shift to an elite group like a few wealthy people
    iron law of oligarchy
  31. k complexes - drastic drop in EEG reading during sleep

    sleep spindles - rapid oscillations in voltage readings on EEG

    paradoxical sleep- EEG REM similar to EEG awake
  32. foot in door vs low balling

    foot in door - complete smaller task to then ask for larger

    low balling - agree but not complete smaller task and ask for larger
  33. describes the method of semantic encoding that relates new information to ones own experience
    self-reference effect
  34. characterized by feelings of automation and trouble recognizing ones self . individuals feel detached from own mind and body and surroundings. these feelings cause impairment of regular activities 

    no hallucinations or delusions but can feel like a programmed robot

     is a mental disorder characterized by the appearance of at least two distinct, relatively enduring identities or dissociated personality states that alternately control a person's behavior, accompanied by memory impairment not explained by ordinary forgetfulness.
    depersonalization/ derealization disorder

    Dissociative identity disorder
  35. which of these is uneffected by outliers

    interquartile range
    standard deviation
    interquartile range - outliers are determined by this

    mean- most susceptable to outliers
  36. septal nuclei is one of the primary pleasure centers of brain
  37. indirect benefits are those that promote better survival in offspring
  38. whole report procedure- used for testing sensory memory

    move from short term to long term- practice many times. elaborate rehearsal.

    short term , working memory - use maintenance rehearsal
  39. gambling addiction - variable ratio because this one is resistant to extinction
  40. cross sectional design - good at making prevalence rating
  41. people will switch to a simpler situation or idea when presented with a complex one
    attribute substitution
  42. when a response becomes extinct but occasionally reappears
    spontaneous recovery
  43. an old man remembers facts about his profession as a math teacher but cant remember info he learned in high school french. this is an example of
    synaptic pruning
  44. This is associated with peer pressure and describes how individuals will often conform to the norms of the group when their state of harmony is disrupted by threat of social rejection, but they will experience internal tension cuz behavior is outside norm of their character. then person adopts group norms as own to relieve tension
    identity shift effect
  45. ACTH and cortisol are responsible for waking up
  46. associates numbers with words that rhyme or resemble numbers
  47. type of intelligence:

    - related to learned skills and knowledge which would help one carry on intelligent conversations. 

    - problem solving abilities
    crystallized intelligence- related to learned skills and knowledge which would help one carry on intelligent conversations. 

    fluid intelligence - problem solving abilities
  48. parasomnia disorder which cause feelings of horror and anxiety and typically occur in non-REM sleep
    Night terrors
  49. post traumatic stress disorder are the result of traumatic events while panic disorders are not. way to distinguish between the two
  50. This discusses the idea that human experience is determined by language. Linguistic categories limit cognitive definitions.

    ex- a culture has one word for categorizing orange and red and are unable to distinguish between the two
    Linguistic relativity
  51. learning info better over longer periods of time with continued review
    spacing effect
  52. Hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations are visual, tactile, auditory, or other sensory events, usually brief but occasionally prolonged, that occur at the transition from wakefulness to sleep (hypnagogic) or from sleep to wakefulness (hypnopompic)
  53. dreaming - uninterrupted alpha waves, REM, cardiovascular / respiratory irregularities, rapid wave

    50% REM sleep most likely infant

    stage 3/4 is slow wave sleep
  54. _______ is a projective psychological test. Proponents of the technique assert that subjects' responses, in the narratives they make up about ambiguous pictures of people, reveal their underlying motives, concerns, and the way they see the social world.
    Thematic apperception test (TAT)
  55. tendency of both eyes to move inward when focusing on nearby objects

    so its a binocular cue of depth perception- Information (or cues) taken in by two eyes (binocular), versus one eye (monocular). Gives us our sense of depth.
  56. monocular cue of depth perception: Cues of depth that can be detected by one eye instead of two. Relative size, interposition, relative height, shading and contour

    linear perspective- apparent convergence, of straight lines in the distance. the greater the apparent convergence the more one tends to estimate the distance from observer

    - light and shadow

    - motion parallax- apparent difference in speed and direction of motion  that is perceived when an observer is in motion . apparent velocity differs with distance from observer
  57. The space between the eyes that allows binocular vision to create depth perception. ~2.5 inches apart.
    Retinal Disparity
  58. weak ties are large in number and increase access to social capital. they're superficial but occur with more ppl throughout life such as colleagess and associates

    social capital refers to the investments ppl make in society in return for rewards...larger social network makes it easier to gain access to these rewards
  59. pillars for information processing model

    - thinking requires encoding and storage of stimuli

    - stimuli must be analyzed by the brain for decision making

    - decisions from one scenario can be used to make decisions in others

    - problem solving does not depend on cognitive ability but complexity and context of problem
  60. _____ cues are when a person sees one person acting in a way different from everyone else and makes a judgement about the person

    _____ cues describe when the target person acts similarly across different situations helping perceiver form a view on him
    consensus cues - more likely to make dispositional about them

    distinctiveness cues - more likely to make situational attribution cuz behavior differs across scenarios
  61. parenting attachment:

    - sometimes anger sometimes passive when parent returns

    - inappropriate behavior like rocking back and forth, looking confused or frozen

    - cry when parent leave but excited when return

     - no expression and minimal distress displayed
    - ambivalent

    - disorganized

    - secure attachment

     - avoidant attachment
  62. ______ theory is based on the idea that punishment and reinforcement guide developmental behaviors
  63. the _____ connects the brocas area and wernickes area and is used to repeat something that was said. Damage to this is called ______ aphasia
    arcuate fasciculus

    conduction aphasia
  64. _____ is a type of encoding which refers to the process of actively putting new info into memory.
    controlled processing
  65. the ____ is a personality model that can be used to help students learn together and involves which personality traits

    the big five

    • openness
    • conscientiousness 
    • extraversion 
    • agreeableness 
    • neurotic
  66. front stage approach intended to deceive is ____ self

    to show true self is ____ self
    tactical self

    authentic self
  67. early in night SWS (stages 3/4) predominates and later in night REM does
  68. explicit conscious memory of experience is stored in the _____

    implicit unconscious memory of event is stored in _____
    explicit - hippocampus

    implicit - amygdala (like fear from early childhood experience)
  69. migration rate , birth rate , mortality rate - per year

    fertility rate - per life time
  70. p < 0.05

    95 % confident the null can be rejected
  71. _____ prejudice describes tendency towards action like thinking you wouldn't give pencil to white kid (although in actual situation u may) but NO ACTION is actually made
  72. organizations have specific goals, last longer, more structured, and continue when membership changes compared to groups
  73. type of system in which society gives power to those who have previously served government and make rigid laws on what citizens can and cant do staffed by unelected people

    - society allocates resources to all who work regardless of profession
    bureaucratic system

  74. ventral stream of anterior cingulate cortex is responsible for social and emotional processing like the kind found in stereotype threat
  75. assigning identity to someone ____

    making excuses _____

    aligning actions
  76. conformity by identification occurs when a person trusts info based off identity of person saying it like a celebrity
  77. right hemisphere processes info from left visual field for BOTH eyes
    BOTH EYES MAN!!!!!


    but opposite visual field
  78. lack of sleep could lead to long term memory loss because sleep is needed for memory consolidation moving short term memory to long term
  79. the p-value must be between 0 and 1
  80. three areas of brain for addiciton issues

    enlarged cerebral ventricles =
    frontal cortex (not hypothalamus)

    nucleus accumbens

    ventral tegmental area

  81. what area of central nervous system is basal ganglia located?
    cerebrum / cerebral cortex

    not cerebellum
  82. increased dopamine cause symptoms of restlessness, agitation, and impulsivity
  83. otolith covers the hair cells found in utricle and saccule of vestibule

    as body accelerates otolith will resist that motion and this bending signals underlying hair cells which send signal to brain 

    vestibule located just beneath semicircular canal
  84. studies on vulnerable populations will not be likely to get approved by institutional review board.

    3 of these are ? (doesn't include homosexuals)
    • pregnant
    • children
    • prison people
  85. _____ jungarian archetype of someones baser desires and instincts

    _____ is ones personality he or she projects to world

    animus - male in woman
    anima - woman in man
    the shadow

  86. who we market ourselves to be when we adhere others's expectations of us
    tactical self
  87. the canal of _____ is located inside anterior chamber of eye and drains aqueous humor if blocked pressure in eye increases and then you get _____
    canal of schlemm

  88. inner ear structures for vestibular sense

    semicircular canal - rotation

    utricle - vertical / hor

    saccule - vertical / hor
  89. _____ when conditioned behavior was extinct but then comes back
    spontaneous recovery
  90. what type of retinal neuron is located nearest the inner surface of the retina?
    ganglion cells
  91. selective attention - particular stimuli processed while others are processed in background

    so it doesn't mean all other stimuli are lost
  92. 99-95-68 rule

    for % 

    99 - within 3 standard deviation
    95 - within 2 standard deviations
    68 - within 1
  93. globalization:

    increased global exchange
    increased food available
    increased global unemployment
    increased pollution
  94. plutocracy- decreased social mobility and increase in the inequality of wealth
  95. _____ inability to identify use for an object beyond its usual purpose
    functional fixedness
  96. howard gardner deemed these two intelligences as more importnaant than others in linguistic intelligence
    - logic / math

    - linguistic

  97. length of confidence interval increases when sample size ______
  98. _____ socialization means individuals learn desirable behaviors in society from the positive or negative rewards from others in society
    normative socialization
  99. difficulty teaching animal a behavior that goes against their instincts
    instinctive drift
  100. approach approach - two choices both good

    avoidant avoidant - two choices both bad

    approach avoidant - one choice with a good and bad aspect

    double approach avoidant - multiple choices with both good and bad
  101. model of emotion:

    basic - darwin - biology genetics

    social construction - environment alone

    appraisal - cognitive interpretation after something triggers emotion followed by biologically predetermined expression of that emotion
  102. ______ posits that mental illness causes a decline in SES
    downward drift
  103. The _____ theory of motivation states that people are motivated to act based on biological  programmed to exhibit

    ex- make a career decision on deep-seated drive to protect others
  104. eustachian tube - equalize pressure of middle ear and drainage 

    1. external canal 
    2. ear drum / tympanic membrane
    3. ossicles
    4. cochlea
    5. organ of corti
    6. auditory nerve
  105. ocd - ego syn or dystonic?
  106. taking stressful or bad feeling inappropriate feeling and channeling it into something positive
  107. ____ brain and change to compensate for missing / damaged areas 

    _____ brain weakens old unused neural pathways and strengthens new used ones for efficiency 

    ____ biological process of converting short term to long term memories by increasing NT at synapse
    neural plasticity 

    synaptic pruning 

    long-term potentiation
  108. the ____ links long-term memory (hippocampus) to emotions (limbic system)
  109. ____ disorder causes patients to suffer from neurological symptoms, such as numbness, blindness, paralysis, or fits without a definable organic cause.
  110. schaeter singer- women injected with adrenaline and feels angry after watching those around her act angry.

    people will look to environment to explain and unexplained physiological response
  111. belief - taught by family and friends, believe its true

    value - ethical behaviors like honesty trust loyalty generosity and kindness
  112. children

    10 months - babble
    16 months - acquire 1 word per week

    18-20 months - "explosion of language" learn words rapidly and test words in diff situations 

    26 months - children can speak in sentences longer than 3 words
  113. vgotzky - zone of proximal development
  114. forward- conditioned b4 unconditioned stimulus
Card Set
psychology 3