IDTA Theory - RUMBA

  1. Basic Movement: Men's Foot Positions
    • Step 1: LEFT foot forward. TOE turned out
    • Step 2: RIGHT foot in place
    • Step 3: LEFT foot to the SIDE & slightly BACK
    • Step 4: RIGHT foot back
    • Step 5: LEFT foot in place
    • Step 6: RIGHT foot to the SIDE and slightly FORWARD
  2. Basic Movement: Men's Footwork
    Steps 1-3: Ball flat throughout
  3. Basic Movement: Men's Action Used
    • Step 1: Checked forward walk
    • Step 2: Weight transfer in place
    • Step 3: Backward walk turning
    • Step 4: Backward walk
    • Step 5: Weight transfer in place
    • Step 6: Forward walk turning
  4. Basic Movement: Men's Body Turn
    • Step 1: No turn
    • Step 2-3: 1/8 LEFT
    • Step 4: No turn
    • Step 5-6: 1/8 LEFT
    • Note: When used as a precede to Reverse Top, Man and Lady turn 3/8 Left over steps 5-6
    • Note: When following with Backward Walks, S3 is taken Back (Lady forward) with no turn
    • Note: When following with Natural Top, there's a slight turn R over steps 1 - 3, ending with Lady's RF between partner's feet
  5. Basic Movement: Shaping
    Steps 1-3: Close hold throughout
  6. Basic Movement: Lady's Foot Position
    • Step 1: RIGHT foot back
    • Step 2: LEFT foot in place
    • Step 3: RIGHT foot SIDE & slightly FORWARD
    • Step 4: LEFT foot forward, TOE turned out
    • Step 5: RIGHT foot in place
    • Step 6: LEFT foot SIDE & slightly BACK
  7. Basic Movement: Lady's footwork
    Ball Flat throughout
  8. Basic Movement: Lady's Action
    • Step 1: Backward walk
    • Step 2: Weight transfer in place
    • Step 3: Forward walk turning
    • Step 4: Checked forward walk
    • Step 5: Weight transfer in place
    • Step 6: Backward walk turning
  9. Basic Movement: Lady's body turn
    • Step 1: no turn
    • Step 2-3: 1/8 LEFT
    • Step 3: to LEFT
    • Step 5-6: 1/8 LEFT
    • Note: When used as a precede to Reverse Top, Man and Lady turn 3/8 Left over steps 5-6
    • Note: When following with Backward Walks, S3 is taken Back (Lady forward) with no turn
    • Note: When following with Natural Top, there's a slight turn R over steps 1 - 3, ending with Lady's RF between partner's feet
  10. Basic Movement: Precedes
    • Associate: Basic Movement, Spot Turn L, Underarm Turn R, Natural Top, Alemana, Alemana from Open Position with L-R hand hold
    • Licentiate: Reverse Top
    • Fellow: Three Alemanas
  11. Basic Movement: Follows
    • Associate: Basic Movement; After S3: Backward Walks, Natural Top; If finished in Open CPP: Check from Open CPP, Underarm Turn L
    • Licentiate: Reverse Top
  12. Basic Movement: Notes
    • 1: As the Backward Walk and Checked Forward Walk are not exact counterparts, the distance between the couple will vary (breathing)
    • 2: When used to precede a Reverse Top, 3/8 turn to L is made over steps 5-6 by Man and Lady
    • 3: When following with Backward Walks, S3 is taken slightly back (lady forward), no turn
    • 4: When following with Natural Top, 1-3 Basic Movement has slight tuen to the Right, Lady RF forward bewteen partner's feet.
    • 5: Steps 1-3 Basic Movement can also be commenced from Open Position with L-R hand hold
  13. Fan: Men's Foot Position
    • Step 1: LEFT foot forward, Toe turned out
    • Step 2: RIGHT foot in place
    • Step 3: LEFT foot to SIDE and slightly BACK
    • Step 4: RIGHT foot back
    • Step 5: LEFT foot in place
    • Step 6: RIGHT foot to SIDE & slightly FORWARD
  14. Fan: Men's Footwork
    Steps 1-6: Ball flat throughout
  15. Fan: Men's Action
    • Step 1: Checked forward walk
    • Step 2: Weight transfer in place
    • Step 3: Backward walk turning
    • Step 4: Backward walk
    • Step 4: Weight transfer in place
    • Step 6: Foward walk turning
  16. Fan: Men's body turn
    • Step 1: no turn
    • Step 2-3: 1/8 Left
    • Step 4: no turn
    • Step 5-6: 1/4 Left
  17. Fan: Shaping
    • Step 1: Start in Close hole
    • Step 3: Lower Left Arm
    • Step 5: Release hold with Right Hand
    • Step 6: Finish in Fan Position
  18. Fan: Lady's foot position
    • Step 1: RIGHT foot back
    • Step 2: LEFT in place
    • Step 3: RIGHT foot to SIDE and slightly FORWARD
    • Step 4: LEFT Foot forward outside partner on Left side
    • Step 5: RIGHT foot BACK & slightly to the SIDE
    • Step 3: LEFT foot back
  19. Fan: Lady's footwork
    Steps 1-6: Ball flat throughout
  20. Fan: Lady's Action
    • Step 1: Backward Walk
    • Step 2: Weight Transfer in place
    • Step 3: Forward Walk
    • Step 4: Forward walk
    • Step 5: Forward walk truning
    • Step 6: Backward walk
  21. Fan: Lady's Body turn
    • Step 1-4: No turn
    • Step 5: 3/8 turn to LEFT
    • Step 6: 1/4 turn to LEFT
  22. Fan: Precedes
    • Associate: Basic Movement, Spot Turn L, Underarm Turn R, Natural Top, Alemana, Alemana from Open Position with L-R hand hold
    • Licentiate: Reverse Top
    • Fellow: Three Alemanas
  23. Fan: Follows
    • Associate: Hockey Stick, Alemana
    • Licentiate: none
    • Fellow: Sliding Doors, Three Alemanas
  24. Hockey Stick: Men's Foot position
    • Step 1: LEFT foot forward, TOE turned out
    • Step 2: RIGHT foot in place
    • Step 3: LEFT foot closed to right foot
    • Step 4: RIGHT foot back
    • Step 5: LEFT foot in place
    • Step 6: RIGHT foot forward
  25. Hockey Stick: Men's Foot work
    Stesp 1-6: Ball flat throughout
  26. Hockey Stick: Men's Action
    • Step 1-3: Forward cucaracha
    • Step 4: Backward walk
    • Step 5: Weight transfer in place
    • Step 6: Forward walk
  27. Hockey Stick: Men's Body Turn
    • Step 1-3: no turn
    • Step 4-6: 1/8 to RIGHT
    • If turned to Open CPP: 1/8 R on S4
  28. Hockey Stick: Shaping
    • Step 1: Start in Fan position
    • Step 3: LEFT arm raised indicating a trun to lady's LEFT
    • Step 6: Finish in open poition with L-R hand hold
  29. Hockey Stick: Lady's Foot Position
    • Step 1: RIGHT foot closed to left
    • Step 2: LEFT foot forward
    • Step 3: RIGHT foot forward
    • Step 4: LEFT foot worward
    • Step 5: RIGHT foot BACK & slightly to SIDE
    • Step 6: LEFT foot back
  30. Hockey Stick: Lady's foot work
    Steps 1-6: Ball flat throughout
  31. Hockey Stick: Ladies Action
    • Step 1: Foot close with weight change
    • Step 2: Forward walk
    • Step 3: Forward walk
    • Step 4: Forward walk
    • Step 5: Forward walk turning
    • Step 6: Backward walk
  32. Hockey Stick: Ladies body turn
    • Step 1-3: no turn
    • Step 4: 1/8 LEFT
    • Step 5: 3/8 LEFT
    • Step 6: 1/8 LEFT
    • If turned to Open CPP: 3/4 Left on S4 using a Spiral Cross Action
  33. Hockey Stick: Precedes
    • Associate: Fan, Close Hip Twist, Open Hip Twist
    • Licentiate: Spiral finished in Fan Position, Curl
    • Fellow: Continuous Circular Hip Twsit
  34. Hockey Stick: Follows
    • Associate: 1-3 Basic Movement to Underarm Turn R or 1-3 Basic Movement to Natural Top, Alemana from Open Position L-R hand Hold, Open Hip Twist
    • Licentiate: Curl
  35. Hockey Stick turned to Open CPP
    • 1: As lady takes S5, the man increases her turn to Left through tone in his Left Arm and leads her to move to Open CPP
    • 2: Man's turn changes to 1/8 Right on S4
    • 3: Lady's turn changes to 3/4 Left on S5 using a Spiral Cross Action
    • 4: Man and Lady move diagonally forward on S6 to finish in Open CPP
    • 5: Follows are Underarm turn L, Check from Open CPP
  36. Spot Turn to LEFT: Men's foot position
    • Step 1: RIGHT foot forward and across body turning to finish RIGHT foot BACK & slightly to SIDE
    • Step 2: LEFT foot in place
    • Step 3: RIGHT foot to side
  37. Spot Turn to LEFT: Men's Foot work
    Steps 1-3: Ball flat throughout
  38. Spot Turn to LEFT: Men's Action
    • Step 1: Forward walk turning
    • Step 2: Weight transfer in place
    • Step 3: Forward walk turning
  39. Spot Turn to LEFT: Men's body turn
    • Step 1-3: one full turn to LEFT
    • if finished in Open CPP: 7/8 turn to Left
  40. Spot Turn to LEFT: Shaping
    Steps 1-3: Start and Finish in Open Hold without hold
  41. Spot Turn to LEFT: Lady's Foot Position
    • Step 1: LEFT foot forward across body turning to finish LEFT foot BACK & slightly to SIDE
    • Step 2: RIGHT foot in place
    • Step 3: LEFT foot to side
  42. Spot Turn to LEFT: Lady's footwork
    Steps 1-3: Ball flat throughout
  43. Spot Turn to LEFT: Lady's Action
    • Step 1: Forward walk turning
    • Step 2: Weight transfer in place
    • Step 3: Forward walk turning
  44. Spot Turn to LEFT: Lady's body turn
    • Step 1-3: One full turn to RIGHT
    • if ending in Open CPP: 7/8 turn to Right
  45. Spot Turn to LEFT: Precedes
    • Associate: Spot Turn to Right, Underarm Turn to Left, Check from Open CPP, Hand to Hand
    • Fellow: Cuban Rocks
  46. Spot Turn to LEFT: Follows
    • Associate: Basic Movement, Fan, Spot Turn to Right, Hand to Hand;
    • If finished in Open CPP: Underarm Turn to Left, Check from Open CPP
    • Licentiate: none
    • Fellow: none
  47. Underarm turn to RIGHT: Men's Foot Position
    • Step 1: RIGHT foot back
    • Step 2: LEFT foot in place
    • Step 3: RIGHT foot to side
  48. Underarm turn to RIGHT: Men's Foot work
    Steps 1-3: Ball Flat throughout
  49. Underarm turn to RIGHT: Men's Action
    • Step 1: Backward walk
    • Step 2: Weight transfer in place
    • Step 3: Side step
  50. Underarm turn to RIGHT: Men's body turn
    • Steps 1-3: No turn
    • if finsihed in Open CPP: 1/8 turn to Right
  51. Underarm turn to RIGHT: Shaping
    Steps 1-3: Start and finish in Open Position L-R hand hold or Close Hold
  52. Underarm turn to RIGHT: Lady's foot position
    • Step 1: LEFT foot forward across body turning to finish LEFT foot BACK and slightly to the SIDE
    • Step 2: RIGHT foot in place
    • Step 3: LEFT foot to side
  53. Underarm turn to RIGHT: Lady's foot work
    Steps 1-3: Ball flat throughout
  54. Underarm turn to RIGHT: Lady's Action
    • Step 1: Forward walk turning
    • Step 2: Weight transfer in place
    • Step 3: Forward walk turning
  55. Underarm turn to RIGHT: Lady's body turn
    • Step 1-3: One full turn to RIGHT
    • If finished in Open CPP: 7/8 turn to Right
  56. Underarm turn to RIGHT: Precedes
    • Associate: 1-3 Basic Movement, Spot Turn to Right, Underarm Turn to Left, Check from Open CPP
    • Licentiate: none
    • Fellow: none
  57. Underarm turn to RIGHT: Follows
    • Associate: Basic Movement, Fan, Spot Turn to Right, Hand to Hand;
    • if finished in Open CPP: Underarm Turn to Left, Check from Open CPP
    • Licentiate: none
    • Fellow: none
  58. Spot Turn to RIGHT: Man's Foot Positions
    • Step 1: LEFT foot forward and across body turning to end with LEFT foot BACK and slightly to the SIDE
    • Step 2: RIGHT foot in place
    • Step 3: LEFT foot to side
  59. Spot Turn to RIGHT: Man's Footwork
    Steps 1-3: Ball Flat Throughout
  60. Spot Turn to RIGHT: Man's Action
    • Step 1: Forward walk turning
    • Step 2: Weight transfer in place
    • Step 3: Forward walk turning
  61. Spot Turn to RIGHT: Man's Body Turn
    • Step 1-3: One complete turn to the RIGHT
    • if finished in Open PP: 7/8 turn to Right
  62. Spot Turn to Right: Shaping
    Steps 1-3: Start and finish in Open Position without hold
  63. Spot Turn to Right: Lady's Foot Position
    • Step 1: RIGHT foot forward and across body turning to end with RIGHT foot BACK and slightly to the SIDE
    • Step 2: LEFT foot in place
    • Step 3: RIGHT foot to side
  64. Spot Turn to Right: Lady's Footwork
    Steps 1-3: Ball flat throughout
  65. Spot Turn to Right: Lady's Action
    • Step 1: Forward walk turning
    • Step 2: Weight transfer in place
    • Step 3: Forward walk turning
  66. Spot Turn to Right: Lady's Body Turn
    • Step 1-3: One complete turn to Left
    • if finished in Open PP: 7/8 turn to Left
  67. Spot Turn to Right: Precedes
    • Associate: Spot Turn to Left, Underarm Turn to Right, Check from Open CPP, 1-6 Hand to Hand
    • Licentiate: none
    • Fellow: none
  68. Spot Turn to Right: Follows
    • Associate: Spot Turn to Left, Underarm Turn to Right, 4-9 Hand to Hand
    • If finished in Open PP: Check from Open PP
    • Licentiate: none
    • Fellow: none
  69. Underarm Turn to Left: Man's Foot Positions
    • Step 1: LEFT foot forward TOE turned out outside partner on left side
    • Step 2: RIGHT foot in place
    • Step 3: LEFT foot to Side
  70. Underarm Turn to Left: Man's Footwork
    Steps 1-3: Ball Flat throughout
  71. Underarm Turn to Left: Man's Action
    • Step 1: Checked forward walk
    • Step 2: Weight transfer in place
    • Step 3: Side Step
  72. Underarm Turn to Left: Man's Body Turn
    • Step 1: No turn
    • Steps 2-3: 1/8 to Left
  73. Underarm Turn to Left: Shaping
    • Step 1: Start in Open CPP
    • Step 3: Finish in Open Position L-R hand hold or Close Hold
  74. Underarm Turn to Left: Lady's Foot Position
    • Step 1: RIGHT foot foward across body turning to finish RIGHT foot BACK and slightly to the SIDE
    • Step 2: LEFT foot in place
    • Step 3: RIGHT foot to side
  75. Underarm Turn to Left: Lady's Footwork
    Steps 1-3. Ball Flat throughout
  76. Underarm Turn to Left: Lady's Action
    • Step 1: Forward walk turning
    • Step 2: Weight transfer in place
    • Step 3: Forward Walk Turning
  77. Underarm Turn to Left: Lady's Body Turn
    Steps 1-3: 7/8 turn to left
  78. Underarm Turn to Left: Precedes
    • all the following finished in Open CPP:
    • Associate: Basic Movement, Hockey Stick, Spot Turn to Left, Underarm Turn to Right, Check from Open PP, 1-6 Hand to Hand, Close Hip Twist, Alemana, Open Hip Twist
    • Licentiate: Spiral, Curl
    • Fellow: Continuous Circular Hip Twist
  79. Underarm Turn to Left: Follows
    • Associate: Spot Turn to Left, Underarm Turn to Right; if lady led forward on S3, Natural Top; if finished in Open PP, Check from Open PP
    • Licentiate: none
    • Fellow: Fallaway
  80. Check from Open CPP: Men's Foot Position
    • Step 1: LEFT foot forward in Open CPP, TOE turned out
    • Step 2: RIGHT foot in place
    • Step 3: LEFT foot to side
  81. Check from Open CPP: Men's Footwork
    Steps 1-3: Ball Flat
  82. Check from Open CPP: Men's Action
    • Step 1: Checked forward walk
    • Step 2: Weight transfer in place
    • Step 3: Side step
  83. Check from Open CPP: Men's Body Turn
    • Step 1: 1/8 to Right (started during previous beat of music)
    • Steps 2-3: 1/4 turn to left
    • If finished in Open PP: Steps 2-3 turn is 3/8 to Left
  84. Check from Open CPP: Shaping
    • Step 1: Start in Open CPP,
    • Step 3: Finish in Open position with L-R hand hold
  85. Check from Open CPP: Lady's Foot Position
    • Step 1: RIGHT foot forward in Open CPP, TOE turned out
    • Step 2: LEFT foot in place
    • Step 3: RIGHT foot to side
  86. Check from Open CPP: Ladies Footwork
    Steps 1-3: Ball Flat
  87. Check from Open CPP: Ladies Action
    • Step 1: Checked forward walk
    • Step 2: Weight transfer in place
    • Step 3: Side step
  88. Check from Open CPP: Ladies Body Turn
    • Step 1: 1/8 to Left (started during previous music beat)
    • Steps 2-3: 1/4 to Right
    • If ended in Open PP: Steps 2-3 turnn is 3/8 to Right
  89. Check from Open CPP: Precedes
    The following figures ended in Open CPP

    • Associate:
    • Basic Movement
    • Hockey Stick
    • Spot Turn L
    • Underarm Turn R
    • Check from Open PP
    • 1-6 Hand to Hand
    • Close Hip Twist
    • Alemana
    • Open Hip Twist

    • Licentiate:
    • Spiral
    • Curl

    • Fellow:
    • Continuous Circular Hip Twist
  90. Check from Open CPP: Follows
    • Associate: Spot Turn to Left, Underarm Turn to Right
    • if finished in Open PP with L-R hand hold: Check from Open PP
    • Licentiate: none
    • Fellow: none
  91. Check from Open PP: Men's Foot Position
    • Step 1: RIGHT foot forward in Open PP, TOE turned out
    • Step 2: LEFT foot in place
    • Step 3: RIGHT foot to side
  92. Check from Open PP: Men's Footwork
    Steps 1-3: Ball Flat
  93. Check from Open PP: Men's Action
    • Step 1: Checked forward walk
    • Step 2: Weight transfer in place
    • Step 3: Side step
  94. Check from Open PP: Men's Body Turn
    • Step 1: 1/8 to Left (started during previous beat of music)
    • Step 2-3: 1/4 turn to Right
    • If finished on Open PP: 3/8 turn to Right
  95. Check from Open PP: Shaping
    • Step 1: Start in Open CPP with R-L hand hold
    • Step 3: Finish in Open position R-L hand hold
  96. Check from Open PP, Lady's Foot Position
    • Step 1: LEFT foot forward in Open PP, TOE turned out
    • Step 2: RIGHT foot in place
    • Step 3: LEFT foot to side
  97. Check from Open PP: Ladies Footwork
    Steps 1-3 Ball Flat
  98. Check from Open PP: Ladies Action
    • Step 1: Checked forward walk
    • Step 2: Weight transfer in place
    • Step 3: Side step
  99. Check from Open PP: Ladies Body Turn
    • Step 1: 1/8 turn to Right (started during previous music beat)
    • Step 2-3: 1/4 turn to Left
    • If ended in Open CPP: 3/8 turn to Left
  100. Check from Open PP: Precedes
    • The following figures ended in Open PP
    • Associate: Spot Turn to Right, Underarm Turn to Left, Check from Open CPP, Hand to Hand
    • Licentiate: none
    • Fellow: none
  101. Check from Open PP: Follows
    • Associate: Spot Turn to Right
    • If ended in Open CPP: Underarm Turn to Left, Check from Open CPP
    • Licentiate: none
    • Fellow: none
  102. Hand to Hand: Man's Foot Position
    • Step 1: LEFT foot back in Open Fallaway Position
    • Step 2: RIGHT foot in place
    • Step 3: LEFT foot to side
    • Step 4: RIGHT foot back in Open Fallaway Position
    • Step 5: LEFT foor in place
    • Step 6: RIGHT foot to side
    • Step 7: LEFT foot back in Open Fallaway Position
    • Step 8: RIGHT foot in place
    • Step 9: LEFT foot to side
  103. Hand to Hand: Man's Footwork
    Ball Flat throughout
  104. Hand to Hand: Man's Action Used
    • Step 1: Backward walk
    • Step 2: Weight transfer in place
    • Step 3: Forward walk turning
    • Step 4: Backward walk
    • Step 5: Weight transfer in place
    • Step 6: Forward walk turning
    • Step 7: Backward walk
    • Step 8: Weight transfer in place
    • Step 9: Forward walk turning
  105. Hand to Hand: Man's body turn
    • Step 1: 1/4 turn Left (commenced on previous beat)
    • Step 2: no turn
    • Step 3: 1/4 turn Right
    • Step 4: 1/4 turn Right (commenced on previous beat)
    • Step 5: no turn
    • Step 6: 1/4 turn Left
    • Step 7: 1/4 turn Left (commenced on previous beat)
    • Step 8: no turn
    • Step 9: 1/4 turn Right
  106. Hand to Hand: Shaping
    • Step 1: Start in Open Position R-L hand hold then achieve Open Fallaway Position with R-L hand hold
    • Step 3: Achieve Open position with L-R hand hold
    • Step 4: Achieve Open Fallaway Position with L-R hand hold
    • Step 6: Achieve Open position with R-L hand hold
    • Step 7: Achieve Open Fallaway Position with R-L hand hold
    • Step 9: Achieve Open position with L-R hand hold
    • Note: Figure can be finished on step 6 in Open CPP
    • Note: Figure can be finished on step 9 in Open PP
  107. Hand to Hand: Lady's Foot Position
    • Step 1: RIGHT foot back in Open Fallaway Position
    • Step 2: LEFT foot in place
    • Step 3: RIGHT foot to side
    • Step 4: LEFT foot back in Open Fallaway Position
    • Step 5: RIGHT foor in place
    • Step 6: LEFT foot to side
    • Step 7: RIGHT foot back in Open Fallaway Position
    • Step 8: LEFT foot in place
    • Step 9: RIGHT foot to side
  108. Hand to Hand: Lady's Footwork
    Ball Flat throughout
  109. Hand to Hand: Lady's Action Used
    • Step 1: Backward walk
    • Step 2: Weight transfer in place
    • Step 3: Forward walk turning
    • Step 4: Backward walk
    • Step 5: Weight transfer in place
    • Step 6: Forward walk turning
    • Step 7: Backward walk
    • Step 8: Weight transfer in place
    • Step 9: Forward walk turning
  110. Hand to Hand: Lady's body turn
    • Step 1: 1/4 turn Right (commenced on previous beat)
    • Step 2: no turn
    • Step 3: 1/4 turn Left
    • Step 4: 1/4 turn Left (commenced on previous beat)
    • Step 5: no turn
    • Step 6: 1/4 turn Right
    • Step 7: 1/4 turn Right (commenced on previous beat)
    • Step 8: no turn
    • Step 9: 1/4 turn Left
  111. Hand to Hand: Precedes
    • Associate: Spot Turn to Left, Underarm Turn to Right, Check from Open PP
    • Licentiate: none
    • Fellow: none
  112. Hand to Hand: Follows
    • Associate: Spot Turn to Left, Underarm Turn to Right
    • If finished in Open CPP on S6: Underarm Turn to Left, Check From Open CPP
    • If finished on Open PP on S9: Check from Open PP

    Licentiate: none

    Fellow: none
  113. Hand to Hand: Notes
    • This figure can also be danced with the Man's R and L hands held alternatively just under the Lady's L and R shoulder blades
    • The Lady's hands will then be naturally on the Man's R and L shoulders respectively

    Precedes for this: Basic Movement, Spot Turn to Left, Underarm Turn to Right
  114. Natural Top: Man's Foot Position
    • Step 1: Right foot crossed behind left
    • Step 2: Left foot to the SIDE and slightly FORWARD
    • Step 3: Right foot crossed behind left
    • Step 4: Left foot to the SIDE and slightly FORWARD
    • Step 5: Right foot crossed behind left
    • Step 6: Left foot to the SIDE and slightly FORWARD
    • Step 7: Right foot crossed behind left
    • Step 8: Left foot to the SIDE and slightly FORWARD
    • Step 9: Right foot closed to left
  115. Natural Top: Man's Footwork
    • Step 1: THT (taken on Toe and footwork is completed as next step is taken)
    • Step 2: Ball Flat
    • Step 3: THT (taken on Toe and footwork is completed as next step is taken)
    • Step 4: Ball Flat
    • Step 5: THT (taken on Toe and footwork is completed as next step is taken)
    • Step 6: Ball Flat
    • Step 7: THT (taken on Toe and footwork is completed as next step is taken)
    • Step 8: Ball Flat
    • Step 9: Ball Flat
  116. Natural Top: Man's Action Used
    • Step 1: Delayed Backward Walk; Latin Cross
    • Step 2: Side step
    • Step 3: Delayed backward walk; Latin Cross
    • Step 4: Side step
    • Step 5: Delayed backward walk; Latin Cross
    • Step 6: Side step
    • Step 7: Delayed backward walk; Latin Cross
    • Step 8: Side step
    • Step 9: Foot close with weight change
  117. Natural top: Man's Body Turn
    • Steps 1-9: 1/4 to Right
    • Total Turn: 2.1/4 turns to Right over the whole figure
  118. Natural Top: Shaping
    • Steps 1-9: Close Hold throughout
    • Can be started from Open Position with L-R hand hold
  119. Natural Top: Lady's Foot Position
    • Step 1: Left foot to SIDE and slightly BACK
    • Step 2: Right foot forward and across Left
    • Step 3: Left foot to SIDE and slightly BACK
    • Step 4: Right foot forward and across Left
    • Step 5: Left foot to SIDE and slightly BACK
    • Step 6: Right foot forward and across Left
    • Step 7: Left foot to SIDE and slightly BACK
    • Step 8: Right foot forward and across Left
    • Step 9: Left foot to side
  120. Natural Top: Lady's Footwork
    Ball Flat throughout
  121. Natural Top: Lady's Action Used
    Steps 1-9: Forward Walks turning to the Right
  122. Natural Top: Lady's Body Turn
    • Steps 1-9: 1/4 to Right
    • Total Turn: 2.1/4 turns to Right over the whole figure
  123. Natural Top: Precedes
    Can be started from Open Position L-R hand hold

    • Associate: 1-3 Basic Movement with slight turn to Right, Lady's RF between partner's feet
    • Backward Walks by taking last walk to SIDE and slightly BACK
    • Underarm Turn to Left, leading Lady to step RF forward between partner's feet

    Licentiate: Alternative Basic Movement

    Fellow: none
  124. Natural Top: Follows
    • Associate: Basic Movement, Fan, Close Hip Twist
    • Licentiate: Opening Out to Right and Left, Spiral
    • Fellow: Rope Spin, Continuous Hip Twsit, Continuous Circular Hip Twist
  125. Natural Top: Notes
    • 1: Throughout this figure the couple rotate in a circle around a central point
    • 2: Steps 7-9 only may be danced
    • 3: Due to the speed and continuation of turn, normal hip action does not occure except on S9
    • 4: Lady can be turned to Left under Man's raised Left arm during steps 4-5
  126. Close Hip Twist: Man's Foot Positions
    • Step 1: Left foot to side
    • Step 2: Right foot in place
    • Step 3: Left foot close to right
    • Step 4: Right foot back
    • Step 5: Left foot in place
    • Step 6: Right foot to the side and slightly forward
  127. Close Hip Twist: Man's Footwork
    • Step 1: Ball Flat
    • Step 2: Flat
    • Steps 3-6: Ball Flat
  128. Close Hip Twist: Man's Action Used
    • Steps 1-3: Side Cucaracha
    • Step 4: Backward Walk
    • Step 5: Weight transfer in place
    • Step 6: Forward Walk Turning
  129. Close Hip Twist: Man's Body Turn
    • Step 1-5: no turn
    • Step 6: 1/8 turn Left
  130. Close Hip Twist: Shaping
    • Step 1: Start in Close Hold then lower Left arm
    • Step 3: Recover Close hold
    • Step 4: Lower Left arm
    • Step 5: Release hold with Right Hand
    • Step 6: Finish in Fan position
  131. Close Hip Twist: Lady's Foot Positions
    • Step 1: Right foot back
    • Step 2: Left foot in place
    • Step 3: Right foot forward and across body
    • Step 4: Left foot forward across body
    • Step 5: Right foot BACK and slightly to the SIDE
    • Step 6: Left foot back
  132. Close Hip Twist: Lady's Footwork
    • Steps 1-2: Ball Flat
    • Step 3: Toe Flat
    • Steps 4-6: Ball Flat
  133. Close Hip Twist: Lady's Action Used
    • Step 1: Backward walk
    • Step 2: Weight transfer in place then Swivel to Left
    • Step 3: Delayed forward walk (Knee Compressed) then Swivel to Right
    • Step 4: Forward walk
    • Step 5: Forward walk turining
    • Step 6: Backward walk
  134. Close Hip Twist: Lady's Body Turn
    • Step 1: 1/2 turn Right (commenced on previous beat)
    • Steps 2-3: 1/2 turn Left
    • Step 4: 1/4 turn Right (commenced on previous beat)
    • Step 5: 3/8 turn Left
    • Step 6: 1/4 turn Left
  135. Close Hip Twist: Precedes
    • Associate: Natural Top, Alemana, Alemana from Open Position with L-R hand hold,
    • Licentiate: Opening Out to Right and Left,
    • Fellow: Rope Spin, Three Alemanas, Continuous Hip Twist
  136. Close Hip Twist: Follows
    • Associate: Hockey Stick, Alemana
    • if the Man turns 3/8 to Left over Steps 5-6 to finish to side on Open Position then Folows are
    • Alemana Fron Open Position with L-R hand hold,
    • Open Hip Twist
    • 1-3 Basic Movement to Natural Top

    • Licentiate: Sliding Doors
    • if Man turns 3/8 Left (Lady 5/8) over Steps 5-6 retaining Close Hold - Reverse Top
    • if the Man turns 3/8 to Left over Steps 5-6 to finish to side on Open Position then Folows are
    • Curl
    • Alternative Basic Movement to Natural Top

    Fellow: none
  137. Close Hip Twist: Notes
    • 1: On S3 the lower part of the Lady's body is turned more than the shoulders
    • 2: Steps 1-3 as Man can be replaced by the Advanced Opening Out Movement
  138. Close Hip Twist turned to Open CPP:
    • 1: As the lady takes step 5, the Man increases her turn to Left through tone in his Left armand leads her to move to Open CPP
    • 2: Man turns 1/4 to Left over steps 5-6
    • 3: Lady turns 3/4 to Left over steps 5-6 using Spiral Cross Action on S5
    • 4: Man and Lady move Diagonally Forward on S6 to finish in Open CPP
    • 5: Follows are Underarm Turn to Left, Check from Open CPP
  139. Alemana: Man's Foot Positions
    • Step 1: Left foot forward, Toe turned out
    • Step 2: Right foot in place
    • Step 3: Left foot closed to right
    • Step 4: Right foot back
    • Step 5: Left foot in place
    • Step 6: Right foot closed to left
  140. Alemana: Man's Footwork
    • Steps 1-4: Ball Flat
    • Step 5: Flat
    • Step 6: Ball Flat
  141. Alemana: Man's Action Used
    • Steps 1-3: Forward Cucaracha (Checked forward walk; weight transfer in place; foot close with weight change)
    • Steps 4-6: Back Cucaracha (backward walk; weight transfer in place; foot close with weight change)
  142. Alemana: Man's Body Turn
    no turn
  143. Alemana: Shaping
    • Step 1: Start in Fan Position
    • Step 3: Left arm raised, indicating a turn to the right
    • Step 6: Finish in Close Hold
  144. Alemana: Lady's Foot Positions
    • Step 1: Right foot closed to Left
    • Step 2: Left foot forward
    • Step 3: Right foot forward
    • Step 4: Left foot forward across body without weight then turn to finish with left foot back
    • Step 5: Right foot forward
    • Step 6: Left foot forward
  145. Alemana: Lady's Footwork
    • Steps 1-3: Ball Flat
    • Step 4: Outside edge of Toe, Flat
    • Steps 5-6: Ball Flat
  146. Alemana: Lady's Action Used
    • Step 1: Foot close with weight change
    • Step 2: Forward walk
    • Step 3: Forward walk
    • Step 4: Delayed Forward Walk (knee straight)
    • Step 5: Forward walk then Swivel to Right
    • Step 6: Forward walk
  147. Alemana: Lady's Body Turn
    • Step 1-2: No turn
    • Step 3: 1/8 turn Right
    • Step 4: 3/4 turn Right
    • Step 5-6: 3/8 turn Right
  148. Alemana: Precedes
    • Associate: Fan, Close Hip Twist, Open Hip Twist
    • Licentiate: Spiral Turned to finish in Fan Position, Curl
    • Fellow: Continuous Circular Hip Twist
  149. Alemana: Follows
    • Associate: Basic Movement, Fan, Close hip Twist
    • Licentiate: Opening Out to Left and Right, Spiral
    • Fellow: Rope Spin, Continuous Hip Twist, Continuous Circular Hip Twist
  150. Alemana Checked to Open CPP
    • 1: Commence in Fan Position.
    • 2: As the Lady takes S5, the Man checks her turn to R through tone in his Left Arm and leads her to move into Open CPP
    • 3: Man turns 1/4 to Right over steps 4-6
    • 4: Lady turns 3/4 to Right on S4, 1/4 to R on S5
    • 5: Man and Lady move diagonally forward on S6 to finish in Open CPP
    • 6: Precedes are as Alemana
    • 5: Follows are Underarm Turn to Left and Check From Open CPP
  151. Alemana from Open Position with L-R hand hold: Man's Foot Positions
    • Step 1: Left foot forward, Toe turned out
    • Step 2: Right foot in place
    • Step 3: Left foot closed to right
    • Step 4: Right foot back
    • Step 5: Left foot in place
    • Step 6: Right foot closed to left
  152. Alemana from Open Position with L-R hand hold: Man's Footwork
    • Steps 1-4: Ball Flat
    • Step 5: Flat
    • Step 6: Ball Flat
  153. Alemana from Open Position with L-R hand hold: Man's Action Used
    • Steps 1-3: Forward Cucaracha (Checked forward walk; weight transfer in place; foot close with weight change)
    • Steps 4-6: Back Cucaracha (backward walk; weight transfer in place; foot close with weight change)
  154. Alemana from Open Position with L-R hand hold: Man's Body Turn
    no turn
  155. Alemana from Open Position with L-R hand hold: Shaping
    • Step 1: Start in Open Position with L-R hand hold
    • Step 3: Left arm raised, indicating a turn to the right
    • Step 6: Finish in Close Hold
  156. Alemana from Open Position with L-R hand hold: Lady's Foot Positions
    • Step 1: Right back
    • Step 2: Left foot in place
    • Step 3: Right foot forward
    • Step 4: Left foot forward across body without weight then turn to finish with left foot back
    • Step 5: Right foot forward
    • Step 6: Left foot forward
  157. Alemana from Open Position with L-R hand hold: Lady's Footwork
    • Steps 1-3: Ball Flat
    • Step 4: Outside edge of Toe, Flat
    • Steps 5-6: Ball Flat
  158. Alemana from Open Position with L-R hand hold: Lady's Action Used
    • Step 1: Backward walk
    • Step 2: Weight transfer in place
    • Step 3: Forward walk
    • Step 4: Delayed Forward Walk (knee straight)
    • Step 5: Forward walk then Swivel to Right
    • Step 6: Forward walk
  159. Alemana from Open Position with L-R hand hold: Lady's Body Turn
    • Step 1-3: No turn
    • Step 4: 5/8 turn Right
    • Step 5-6: 3/8 turn Right
  160. Alemana from Open Position with L-R hand hold: Precedes
    • Associate: Hockey Stick
    • Licentiate: Spiral
    • Fellow: Sliding Doors
  161. Alemana from Open Position with L-R hand hold: Follows
    • Associate: Basic Movement, Fan, Close hip Twist
    • Licentiate: Opening Out to Left and Right, Spiral
    • Fellow: Rope Spin, Continuous Hip Twist, Continuous Circular Hip Twist
  162. Alemana from Open Position with L-R hand hold Checked to Open CPP
    • 1: As the Lady takes S5, the Man checks her turn to R through tone in his Left Arm and leads her to move into Open CPP
    • 2: Man turns 1/8 to Right over steps 4-6
    • 4: Lady turns 5/8 to Right on S4, 1/4 to R on S5
    • 5: Man and Lady move diagonally forward on S6 to finish in Open CPP
    • 6: Precedes are as Alemana
    • 5: Follows are Underarm Turn to Left and Check From Open CPP
  163. Alemana from Open Position with R-R hand hold
    • 1: Men's Steps 1-5 are unchanged
    • 2: Men's Step 6 is taken forward and across the body turning to Right to allow the Advanced Opening out Movement to be danced aspart of the following figure
    • 3: Lady's steps are unchanged
    • 4: Precedes are Hockey Stick, Spiral, Sliding Doors achieving R-R hand hold on last step
    • 5: Follows are Close Hip Twist, Continuous Hip Twist, Continuous Circular Hip Twist from Right side all started with Advanced Opening Out Movement.
    • 6: L-R hand hold is achieved on the penultimate step of the 'follow' figures
  164. Open Hip Twist: Man's Foot Positions
    • Step 1: Left foot forward, Toe turned out
    • Step 2: Right foot in place
    • Step 3: Toe of Left Foot Closed to instep of Right foot
    • Step 4: Right foot back
    • Step 5: Left foot in place
    • Step 6: Right foot to the SIDE and slightly FORWARD
  165. Open Hip Twist: Man's Footwork
    Ball Flat throughout
  166. Open Hip Twist: Man's Action Used
    • Steps 1-3: Forward Cucaracha (Checked forward walk; weight transfer in place; Foot close with weight change)
    • Step 4: Backward walk
    • Step 5: Weight transfer in place
    • Setp 6: Forward walk turning
  167. Open Hip Twist: Man's Body Turn
    • Steps 1-5: No turn
    • Step 6: 1/8 turn Left
  168. Open Hip Twist: Shaping
    • Step 1: Start in Open Position with L-R hand hold
    • Step 3: Left hand almost on Left hip
    • Step 6: Finish in Fan position
  169. Open Hip Twist: Lady's Foot Positions
    • Step 1: Right foot back
    • Step 2: Left foot in place
    • Step 3: Right foot forward
    • Step 4: Left foot forward across body
    • Step 5: Right foot BACK and slightly to the SIDE
    • Step 6: Left foot back
  170. Open Hip Twist: Lady's Footwork
    Ball Flat throughout
  171. Open Hip Twist: Lady's Action Used
    • Step 1: Backward walk
    • Step 2: Weight transfer in place
    • Step 3: Forward walk then Swivel to Right
    • Step 4: Forward walk
    • Step 5: Forward walk turning
    • Step 6: Backward walk
  172. Open Hip Twist: Lady's Body Turn
    • Step 1-3: no turn
    • Step 4: 1/4 turn right (commenced on previous beat)
    • Step 5: 3/8 turn Left
    • Step 6: 1/4 turn Left
  173. Open Hip Twist: Precedes
    • Associate: Hockey Stick;
    • The following figures finished in Open Position: Close Hip Twist, Open Hip Twist

    • Licentiate: Spiral
    • The following figures finished in Open Position: Curl

    • Fellow: Sliding Doors
    • The following figures finished in Open Position: Continuous Circular Hip Twist
  174. Open Hip Twist: Follows
    • Associate: Hockey Stick, Alemana
    • if the Man turns 3/8 to Left over Steps 5-6 to finish to side on Open Position then Folows are
    • Alemana Fron Open Position with L-R hand hold,
    • Open Hip Twist
    • 1-3 Basic Movement to Natural Top

    • Licentiate: Sliding Doors
    • if Man turns 3/8 Left (Lady 5/8) over Steps 5-6 retaining Close Hold - Reverse Top
    • if the Man turns 3/8 to Left over Steps 5-6 to finish to side on Open Position then Folows are
    • Curl
    • Alternative Basic Movement to Natural Top

    Fellow: none
  175. Open Hip Twist turned to Open CPP:
    • 1: As the lady takes step 5, the Man increases her turn to Left through tone in his Left armand leads her to move to Open CPP
    • 2: Man turns 1/4 to Left over steps 5-6
    • 3: Lady turns 3/4 to Left over steps 5-6 using Spiral Cross Action on S5
    • 4: Man and Lady move Diagonally Forward on S6 to finish in Open CPP
    • 5: Follows are Underarm Turn to Left, Check from Open CPP
  176. Reverse Top: Man's Foot Positions
    • Step 1: Left foot crossed in front of Right Foot
    • Step 2: Right foot FORWARD and slightly to the SIDE
    • Step 3: Left foot crossed in front of Right Foot
    • Step 4: Right foot FORWARD and slightly to the SIDE
    • Step 5: Left foot crossed in front of Right Foot
    • Step 6: Right foot side
  177. Reverse Top: Man's Footwork
    Ball Flat throughout
  178. Reverse Top: Man's Action Used
    • Step 1: Swivel on Ball of Left foot to Latin Cross
    • Step 2: Forward Walk
    • Step 3: Swivel on Ball of Left foot to Latin Cross
    • Step 4: Forward Walk
    • Step 5: Swivel on Ball of Left foot to Latin Cross
    • Step 6: Forward Walk Turning
  179. Reverse Top: Body Turn
    • Step 1: 3/8 turn Left
    • Step 2: 1/8 turn Left
    • Step 3: 3/8 turn Left
    • Step 4: 1/8 turn Left
    • Step 5: 3/8 turn Left
    • Step 6: 1/4 turn Left
    • Overall Turn 1.5/8 Left
  180. Reverse Top: Shaping
    Start and finish in Close hold
  181. Reverse Top: Lady's Foot Positions
    • Step 1: Right foot back
    • Step 2: Left foot crossed behind Right foot
    • Step 3: Right foot back
    • Step 4: Left foot crossed behind Right foot
    • Step 5: Right foot back
    • Step 6: Left foot to side
  182. Reverse Top: Lady's Footwork
    • Step 1: Ball Flat
    • Step 2: Toe Heel Toe, initially taken on Toe and footwork completed as next step is taken
    • Step 3: Ball Flat
    • Step 4: Toe Heel Toe, initially taken on Toe and footwork completed as next step is takem
    • Step 5: Ball Flat
    • Step 6: Ball Flat
  183. Reverse Top: Lady's Action Used
    • Step 1: Backward walk
    • Step 2: Delayed Backward Walk; Latin Cross
    • Step 3: Backward walk
    • Step 4: Delayed Backward Walk; Latin Cross
    • Step 5: Backward walk
    • Step 6: Backweard Walk Turning
  184. Reverse Top: Lady's Body Turn
    • Step 1: 3/8 turn Left
    • Step 2: 1/8 turn Left
    • Step 3: 3/8 turn Left
    • Step 4: 1/8 turn Left
    • Step 5: 3/8 turn Left
    • Step 6: 1/4 turn Left
    • Overall Turn: 1.5/8 Left
  185. Reverse Top: Precedes
    • The final step of figures below end:
    • Man: Foot position Right foot to SIDE and slightly FORWARD
    • Lady: Left Foot crossed behind Right Foot with action Delayed Backward Walk, Latin Cross

    • Associate:
    • Basic Movement: turned 3/8 Left by Man and Lady over steps 5-6 retaining Close Hold
    • Close Hip Twist: turned 3/8 Left by Man, 5/8 by Lady over steps 5-6 retaining Close Hold
    • Open Hip Twist: turned 3/8 Left by Man, 5/8 by Lady over steps 5-6 achieving Close Hold

    • Licentiate:
    • Curl: turned 3/8 Left by Man, 5/8 by Lady over steps 5-6 achieving Close Hold
    • Spiral Turned to Fan Position: turned 3/8 Left by Man, 5/8 by Lady over steps 5-6 achieving Close Hold

    • Fellow:
    • Continuous Circular Hip Twist: turned 3/8 Left by Man, 5/8 by Lady over steps 11-12
  186. Reverse Top: Follows
    • Associate: Basic Movement, Fan
    • Licentiate: After S3, 4-6 Spiral
    • Fellow: After S3, Fallaway
  187. Reverse Top: Notes
    • 1: Throughout the Reverse Top, the couple rotate in a circle, the centre point is the Ball of the Man's Left Foot
    • 2: Due to the speed and continous turn, hip actions does not occur except on S6
    • 3: During steps 1-5 the bodies are in contact
  188. Opening Out to Right and Left: Man's Foot Positions
    • Step 1: Left foot to Side
    • Step 2: Right foot in place
    • Step 3: Left foot closed to Right foot
    • Step 4: Right foot to side
    • Step 5: Left foot in place
    • Step 6: Right foot closed to Left foot
  189. Opening Out to Right and Left: Man's Footwork
    • Step 1: Ball Flat
    • Step 2: Flat
    • Step 3: Ball Flat
    • Step 4: Ball Flat
    • Step 5: Flat
    • Step 6: Ball Flat
  190. Opening Out to Right and Left: Men's Action Used
    • Steps 1-3: Side cucaracha (left)
    • Steps 4-6: Side cucaracha (right)
  191. Opening Out to Right and Left: Man's Body Turn
    No turn
  192. Opening Out to Right and Left: Shaping
    • Step 1: Start in Close Hold then release hold with Left hand
    • Step 3: Achieve hold with Left hand on Lady's Right shoulder blade, release hold with Right hand
    • Step 6: Finish in Close Hold
  193. Opening Out to Right and Left: Lady's Foot Positions
    • Step 1: Right foot back
    • Step 2: Left foot in place
    • Step 3: Right foot to side
    • Step 4: Left foot back
    • Step 5: Right foot in place
    • Step 6: Left foot to side
  194. Opening Out to Right and Left: Lady's Footwork
    Ball Flat throughout
  195. Opening Out to Right and Left: Lady's Action Used
    • Step 1: Backward Walk
    • Step 2: Weight transfer in place
    • Step 3: Forward Walk Turning
    • Step 4: Backward walk
    • Step 5: Weight transfer in place
    • Step 6: Forward Walk Turning
  196. Opening Out to Right and Left: Lady's Body Turn
    • Step 1: 1/4 turn Right (started on previous beat)
    • Step 2: no turn
    • Step 3: 1/4 turn Left
    • Step 4: 1/4 turn Left (started in pervious beat)
    • Step 5: no turn
    • Step 6: 1/4 turn Right
  197. Opening Out to Right and Left: Precedes
    • Assiociate: Natural Top, Alemana, Alemana from Open Position L-R hand hold
    • Licentiate: none
    • Fellow: Rope Spin, Three Alemanas, Continuous Hip Twist
  198. Opening Out to Right and Left: Follows
    • Associate: Close Hip Twist
    • Licentiate: Spiral
    • Fellow: Continuous Hip Twist, Continuous Circular Hip Twist
  199. Advanced Opening Out Movement: Man's Foot Positions
    • Step 1: Left foot forward, Toe turned out
    • Step 2: Right foot in place
    • Step 3: Left foot crossed behind Right foot
  200. Advanced Opening Out Movement: Man's Footwork
    • Step 1-2: Ball Flat
    • Step 3: Toe Flat
  201. Advanced Opening Out Movement: Man's Action Used
    • Step 1: Checked Forward Walk
    • Step 2: Weight Transfer in Place
    • Step 3: Delayed Backward Walk, Latin Cross
  202. Advanced Opening Out Movement: Man's Body Turn
    • Step 1: 3/8 turn Right (started during previous beat)
    • Step 2-3: 1/8 turn Left
  203. Advanced Opening Out Movement: Lady's
    • 1: Lady's steps are unchaged
    • 2: She will be led to turn an additional 1/4 turn Right on S1
    • 3: The turn is started at the end of count 1 of the preceding step
  204. Advanced Opening Out Movement: Shaping
    • Step 1: Start in Close Hold, then lower Left arm
    • Step 3: Finish in Close Hold
  205. Advanced Opening Out Movement: General
    • 1: Used to replace:
    • Steps 1-3 of Close Hip Twist
    • Steps 7-9 of Sliding Doors
    • Steps 1-3 of Continuous Hip Twist
    • Steps 1-3 of Continuous Circular Hip Twist
    • 2: The Man steps forward whilst leading the lady to open out on S1 of the Close Hip Twist and other similarly constructed figures
  206. Advanced Opening Out Movement: Notes
    • 1: To achieve the correct position during the Advanced Opening Out Movement the man must change the standard position
    • of the last step of the preceding figure to be taken Right Foot forward across body, turning to the Right
    • Alemana S6, Natural Top S9, and Sliding Doors S6
    • 2: This is used following and Alemana from Open Position with R-R hand hold
  207. Spiral: Man's Foot Positions
    • Step 1: Left foot to side
    • Step 2: Right foot in place
    • Step 3: Left foot closed to Right foor
    • Step 4: Right foot back
    • Step 5: Left foot in place
    • Step 6: Right foot forward
  208. Spiral: Man's Footwork
    • Step 1: Ball Flat
    • Step 2: Flat
    • Step 3-6: Ball Flat
  209. Spiral: Man's Action Used
    • Step 1-3: Side Cucaracha
    • Step 4: Backward Walk
    • Step 5: Weight Transfer in Place
    • Step 6: Forward Walk
  210. Spiral: Man's Body Turn
    • Steps 1-4: No turn
    • Steps 5-6: 1/8 turn Left
  211. Spiral: Shaping
    • Step 1: Start in Close Hold then lower Left arm
    • Step 3: Left arm raised leading turn to L on count 1, Right hand loosly on Lady's waist
    • Step 4: Realease hold with Right Hand
    • Step 6: Finish in Open Position L-R hand hold
  212. Spiral: Lady's Foot Positions
    • Step 1: Right foot back
    • Step 2: Left foot in place
    • Step 3: Right foot forward on Count 4 (1st 1/2 of S3)
    • then turn to Left on Count 1 (2nd hald of S3) allowing Left foot to cross in front of Right foot without weight
    • Step 4: Left foot forward
    • Step 5: Right foot BACK and slightly to SIDE
    • Step 6: Left foot back
  213. Spiral: Lady's Footwork
    • Step 1-2: Ball Flat
    • Step 3: Outside Edge of Toe, then Toe of both feet
    • Step 4-6: Ball Flat
  214. Spiral: Lady's Action Used
    • Step 1: Backward Walk
    • Step 2: Weight Transfer in Place
    • Step 3: Delayed Forward Walk, knee straight, on Count 4 (1st half of S3)
    • Spiral Cross on Count 1 (2nd half of S3)
    • Step 4: Forward Walk
    • Step 5: Forward Walk Turning
    • Step 6: Backward Walk
  215. Spiral: Lady's Body Turn
    • Step 1: 1/2 turn Right (started on previous beat)
    • Steps 2-3: 1/4 turn to Left
    • Step 3: 3/4 turn to Right on Count 1 (2nd half of S3)
    • Step 4: 1/8 turn Left
    • Step 5: 3/8 turn Left
    • Step 6: 1/8 turn Left
  216. Spiral: Precedes
    • Associate: Natural Top, Alemana, Alemana fron Open Position with L-R hand hold,
    • Licentiate: Opening Out to Right and Left
    • Spiral steps 4-6 can be danced following Step 3 of Reverse Top:
    • Lady is led to dance the Spiral Cross during Step 3 of the Reverse Top on Count 1 (2nd half of S3)
    • Fellow: Rope Spin, Three Alemanas, Continuous Hip Twist
  217. Spiral: Follows
    • Associate: 1-3 Basic Movement to Underarm Turn Right or Natural Top, Alemana from Open Position with L-R hand hold, Open Hip Twist
    • Licentiate: Curl
    • After steps 1-3 of Spiral, Progressive Walks in Shadow Position
    • Fellow: After steps 1-3 of Spiral, Fallaway
  218. Spiral Turned to Fan Position
    • 1: As the Lady takes Step 3, the Man increases her turn to Left through tone in his Left Arm and leads her to move to Fan Position
    • 2: Man turns 1/8 to Left on Step 6
    • 3: Lady turns 7/8 Left on Count 1 of Step 3 (2nd half of S3), 1/8 Left on Step 4, 3/8 Left on Step 5, 1/4 Left on Step 6
    • 4: Precedes are as for Spiral
    • 5: Follows are Hockey Stick, Alemana, Sliding Doors, Three Alemanas.
    • 6: if the Man turns 3/8 Left (Lady 5/8) achieving Close Hold during Steps 5-6, follow with Reverse Top
  219. Spral Turned to Open CPP
    • 1: As the Lady takes Steps 3 & 5 the Man increases her turn to L through tone in his Left arm and leads her to move to Open CPP
    • 2: man turns 1/4 Left over steps 5-6
    • 3: Lady turns 7/8 Left on Count 1 of Step 3 (2nd Half of S3), 1/8 Left on Step 4, 3/4 Left over Steps 5-6 using a Spiral Cross Action on Step 5
    • 4: Man and Lady move Diagonally Forward on Step 6 to achieve Open CPP
    • 5: Precedes are as Spiral
    • 6: Follows - Underarm Turn Left, Check from Open CPP
  220. Curl: Man's Foot Positions
    • Step 1: Left foot forward, Toe turned out
    • Step 2: Right foot in place
    • Step 3: Left foot closed to Rightfoot
    • Step 4: Right foot back
    • Step 5: Left foot in place
    • Step 6: Right foot SIDE and slightly FORWARD
  221. Curl: Man's Footwork
    Ball Flat throughout
  222. Curl: Man's Action Used
    • Step 1-3: Forward Cucaracha
    • Step 4: Backward Walk
    • Step 5: Weight Transfer in Place
    • Step 6: Forward Walk Turning
  223. Curl: Man's Body Turn
    • Step 1-5: no turn
    • Step 6: 1/8 turn Left
  224. Curl: Shaping
    • Step 1: Start in Open Position L-R hand hold
    • Step 3: Left hand raised leading turn to Left, Right hand loosely on Lady's waist
    • Step 4: Release hold with Right Hand
    • Step 6: Finish in Fan Position
  225. Curl: Lady's Foot Positions
    • Step 1: Right foot back
    • Step 2: Left foot in place
    • Step 3: Right foot forward turning to finish Left foot in front of Right foot without weight
    • Step 4: Left foot forward
    • Step 5: Right foot BACK and slightly to SIDE
    • Step 6: Left foot back
  226. Curl: Lady's Footwork
    Ball Flat throughout
  227. Curl: Lady's Action Used
    • Step 1: Backward Walk
    • Step 2: Weight Transfer in Place
    • Step 3: Forward Walk Turning to Loose Spiral Cross
    • Step 4: Forward Walk
    • Step 5: Forward Walk Turning
    • Step 6: Backward Walk
  228. Curl: Lady's Body Turn
    • Step 1-2: no turn
    • Step 3: 5/8 to Left
    • Step 4: 1/8 to left
    • Step 5: 3/8 to Left
    • Step 6: 1/4 to Left
  229. Curl: Predecdes
    • Associate: Hockey Stick
    • and the following figures finished in Open Position - Close Hip Twist, Open Hip Twist
    • Licentiate: Spiral
    • Fellow: Sliding Doors
    • and the following figures finished in Open Position - Continuous Circular Hip Twist
  230. Curl: Follows
    • Associate: Hockey Stick, Alemana
    • if the Man turns 3/8 Left over Steps 5-6 to end side in Open Position:
    • Alemana from Open Position with L-R hand hold
    • Open Hip Twist
    • 1-3 basic Movement followed by Natural Top

    • Licentiate: if the Man turns 3/8 Left (Lady 5/8) achieving Close Hold during Steps 5-6, follow with Reverse Top
    • if the Man turns 3/8 Left over Steps 5-6 to end side in Open Position:
    • Alternative Basic Movement followed by Natural Top

    • Fellow: Sliding Doors
    • the Fallaway can be danced after Step 3
  231. Curl Turned to Open CPP
    • 1: As the Lady takes Step 5 the Man increases her turn to L through tone in his Left arm and leads her to move to Open CPP
    • 2: man turns 1/4 Left over steps 5-6
    • 3: Lady turns 3/4 Left over Steps 5-6 using a Spiral Cross Action on Step 5
    • 4: Man and Lady move Diagonally Forward on Step 6 to achieve Open CPP
    • 5: Follows - Underarm Turn Left, Check from Open CPP
  232. Explain Time Signature
    • The Rumba time signature is 4/4
    • where the first number denotes the number of beats in a bar, and
    • the second number denotes the value of those beats (i.e. 4 = 4 quarters of a note = crotchet)
  233. Explain Rhythm
    • Rhythm is the regular occurence of an accented beat or beats in the music
    • it gives character to the music and dance
    • its signature, how we recognise the dance
    • in Rumba there is are two percussive accents, a slight one on beat 2 with a predominant accent on the 4th beat
  234. Explain Tempo
    • tempo is the peed at which the music is played
    • it is defined in bars per minute (sometimes beats per minute)
    • for Rumba this is 27 bars per minute (=108 beats)
  235. Explain Timing and Beat Value
    • Timing is the way we count the passing of the music to ourselves and our pupils
    • Helps us identify and control when things happen in the dance
    • For Rumba the timing is 2, 3, 4.1, where
    • A step is taken on the first half of the beat, with hip settling happening on the remainder of the step
    • -> first step in a bar is taken on beat 2 on 1/2 beat and we settle (hips) on & (2&)
    • -> next step is taken on beat 3 then settle (hips) (3&)
    • -> finally, we step on beat 4 and settle (hips) on &1&
  236. Some Principles for Rumba at Associate
    • Footwork is Ball Flat throughout except for Delayed Walks (Nat Top, Alemana & Close Hip twist) and Curcarachas (Alemana, Open Hip Twist, Close Hip Twist)
    • For side steps, if following step is crossing in front then foot position is 'side and slightly back'
    • For side steps, if following step is crossing behind then foot position is 'side and slightly forward'
  237. Describe the Rumba Poise
    • Stand naturally with feet together and shoulders relaxed and level
    • Straighten the spine and raise the rib cage without raising the shoulders
    • Take a step to the side and transfer weight to the supporting leg, locking the knee
    • The other leg is straightened without locking the knee
    • Weight is fully transferred to the supporting leg, allowing the pelvis to move sideways and back
    • The weight is felt near the heel of the supporting foot
    • This pelvic settling does not alter the position of the upper body
  238. Figures Ending in Close Hold
    • Basic Movement
    • Natural Top
    • Alemana
    • Alemana from Open Position
    • Underarm turns can end in Close Hold
  239. Figures Ending in Fan Position
    • Fan
    • Open Hip Twist
    • Close Hip Twist
  240. Figures Ending in Open Position
    • Hockey Stick
    • Spot Turns
    • Checks
    • Hand to Hand
    • Fan, Close & Open Hip Twists end in open if man turns 3/8 rather than 1/8 to left
  241. List Exceptions to Ball Flat Footwork
    • Natural Top: Man's Steps 1,3,5 & 7, which are delayed backward walks THT
    • Close Hip Twist: Lady's Step 3, which is delayed forward walk Toe Flat (then swivel to Right)
    • Alemana: Lady's Step 4, which is a delayed forward walk outside edge of toe then flat
    • Cucaracha (except forward): Man's Step 2 is Flat
  242. List amount of turn and end position for Forward Walk Turning
    • 1/8 turn ends to side and slightly forward
    • 1/4 turn ends to side
    • 3/8 turn end back and slightly to side (this is the maximum turn)
    • Exceptions:
    • Fan: lady's step 2 ends back and slightly to side after 1/8 turn
    • Spot Turns: Man and Lady Step 1
  243. Describe Forward Walk
    • Assume correct poise and balance
    • Take one foot behind with no weight
    • Movement begins with the body
    • Just before point of imbalance, foot begins to move, toe then ball of foot with slight pressure into floor
    • Just before foot arrives in position the leg straightens
    • Weight is transferred by lowering moving heel and releasing stationery
    • Stationery leg retains some tension and is straightened; turns 1/16 outward to control the full weight transfer
    • Weight settles at a rate depending on the beat value of the step
  244. Describe Backward Walk
    • Assume correct poise and balance
    • Take one foot in front with out weight
    • The foot is moved, ball first then toe under the body with slight pressure into the floor but without affecting the poise; knee is slightly flexed
    • Movement continues to a point where the full weight can just confortably be retained on the stationey leg with its knew straight
    • Weight is transferred by lowering moving heel and releasing the stationery heel at a rate the depends of the beat value of the step
    • Tension is maintained in the stationery leg with the heel lightly touching or just released from thr floor
    • At the end of the move, the moving leg turns approximately 1/16 outward naturally (inherent turn)
  245. Discuss Checked Forward Wallk
    • There are occasions when we need to change direction with little or no turn; this is achieved with the Checked Forward Walk.
    • The Checked Forward Walk is like the normal forward walk except:
    • - the stepping foot moves to a position in advance of the body (in reality, the body does not 'catch up' with the foot)
    • - only part weight is transferred to the stepping foot
    • - the toe of the stepping foot is turned out approximately 1/16
    • - the knee of the stationary foot is flexed and allowed to approach the stepping knee (but not too much)
  246. Discuss Delayed Walks
    • Delayed walks are used to enhance rhythmic interpretation of the music.
    • The foot is moved to position without full weight transfer
    • Weight is transferred later than normal with turn appropriate to the step, when the knee is straightend
    • There are three types of Delayed Walk
    • 1. Delayed forward walk with flexed knee (used when follow by a turn toward the stepping foot, e.g. ladies Close Hip Twist, step 3)
    • 2. Delayed forward walk with straight knee (used when follow by a turn away from the stepping foot, e.g. ladies Alemana, stem 4)
    • 3. Delayed backward walk with flexed knee (e.g. man's Natural Top, steps 1, 3 ,5 & 7)
  247. Discuss Forward (and Backward) Walk Turning
    • For occations when we need to change direction but continue moving forward (or backward)
    • This is achieved by taking a step in the initial direction then gradually during to face the new direction during the 'settling' phase of the walk
    • Foot positions vary depending the amount of turn as follows:
    • 1/8 - foot is to the side and slighly forward (back)
    • 1/4 - foot is to the side
    • 3/8 - foot is backward (forward) and slightly to the side
    • the maximum that can practically be turned is 3/8, with any additional turn completed during the following step
  248. Describe Close Hold
    • Dancers stand facing one another approximately 6" (15cm) apart
    • The lady is slightly to the right of the man
    • Weight is on either foot with the lady standing normally opposite
    • The man's right hand is placed on the lady's back, cupping just below her left shoulder blade
    • His right arm is held in a gentle curve with his elbow at approximately chest height
    • The left arm follows a similar curve but the forearm is raised
    • The left hand, with straight wrist, is held at approximately nose height and gently holds the lady's right hand on an imaginary line between the two bodies
    • The ladys left hand is placed gently on the man's right shoulder
    • He left arm rests lightly on the man's right arm, following the same curve.
  249. Describe Promenade Position
    • From Close Hold both dancers turn outward, man to left lady to right
    • Turn can be between 1/8 and 1/4 each and the man's left arm is lowered
    • Hips, depending on following figure will be between 6" (15) apart and touching
    • If hips are in close proximity, the man's right arm is placed on her right shoulder blade and her left arm is placed across his back at approximately the man's shoulder blade level
  250. Describe Fallaway Position
    From promenade position, both dancers step backward, man on left foot, lady on right
  251. Describe Open Position
    • Dancers stand facing one another at approximately arms' length
    • Weight is on either foot with lady standing normally opposite
    • Hand hold in open position will depend on the following figure and can be
    • - no hold
    • - man's left to lady's right
    • - man's right to lady's left
    • - man's right to lady's right
    • - man's left to lady's left
    • - both hands
  252. Describe Open Promenade Position
    • From Open position, man and lady turn between 1/8 and 1/4 outward, man to left, ladt to right
    • in the 1/8 position, foot position is "side in open promenade position"
    • in the 1/4 position, foot position is "forward in open promenade position"
    • With L to R hand hold, turn out is limited to 1/8
  253. Describe Open Counter Promenade Position
    • From Open Position, man and lady turn between 1/8 and 1/4 outward, man to right lady to left
    • in the 1/8 position, foot position is "side in open promenade position"
    • in the 1/4 position, foot position is "forward in open promenade position"
  254. Describe Open Fallaway Position
    • From Open Position, man and turn outward 1/4
    • if started in L-R hand hold, man steps back on right foot, lady left foot
    • if started in R-L hand hold, man steps back on left foot, lady on right
  255. Describe Fan Position
    • Man stands on his right foot, which is to the side and slightly forward (following forward walk turning)
    • His right arm is held to the side flexed, just below shoulder height
    • His left arm is held almost at arms length, palm upward holding the lady's right hand gently, with his thumb on top of her hand
    • The ladys stands at right angles to the man
    • The lady's right arm is held flexed, just below shoulder height
    • Her left foot is back supporting her whole weight following a backward walk
    • Her left arm is held to the side, slightly flexed just below shoulder height
    • An imaginary line drawn from her feet would pass approximately 6" (15cm) in front of the man
  256. Discuss the Cucaracha
    • these are pressure steps normally danced by the man
    • they consist of three steps normally made without turn
    • the first step can be taken backward, sideways, diagonally or forward
    • it is a 'checked step' where only partial weight is collected on the stepping leg and its toe is turned out
    • on the second step, full weight is transferred to the supporting foot, in place
    • on the third step, the stepping foot is closed to the supporting foot
    • the heel of the supporting foot is not released, except with the forward cucaracha
    • Footwork is: Step 1 - ball flat; Step 2 - flat (except for forward cucaracha); Step 3 - ball flat
Author
DanceClub
ID
341477
Card Set
IDTA Theory - RUMBA
Description
Laird's Technique of Latin Dancing - Rumba
Updated