# Chemistry Chapter 2

 How many yards are in a mile? 1,760 What are the three measuring systems for temperature? Kelvin, Celsius, and Fahrenheit How would one convert from Celsius to Kelvin? Add 273.15 How would one convert from Kelvin to Celsius? Subtract 273.15 How many quartz are in a gallon? 4 What is the scale for converting from Fahrenheit to Celsius? 9°F over 5°C What is the scale for converting from Celsius to Fahrenheit? 5°C over 9°F What is the corresponding Fahrenheit temperature to Celsius zero point? 32°F How would one convert from Fahrenheit to Celsius? (TF-32°F)by 5°C over 9°F How would one convert from Celsius to Fahrenheit? TC by 9°F over 5°C + 32°F What is systematic metallurgy? Extraction of metals from ores First scientist to carefully measure the relationship between the pressure and volume of air Robert Boyle Scientist who explained the true nature of combustion Antoine Lavoisier Law of definite proportion/ Proust's Law A given compound always contains exactly the same proportion of elements by mass Law of Multiple Proportions When two elements form a series of compounds, the ratios of the masses of the second element that combine with 1 g of the first element can always be reduced to small whole numbers Dalton's Atomic Theory (4) Each element is made up of tiny particles called atomsThe atoms of a given element are identical; the atoms of different elements are different in some fundamental way or waysChemical compounds are formed when atoms of different elements combine with each other. A given compound always has the same relative numbers and types of atomsChemical reactions involve reorganization of atoms- changes in the way they are bound together. The atoms themselves are not changed in a chemical reaction Explain the process of weighing Mass is often determined by comparison to a standard mass Avogadro's hypothesis (3) 1. At the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of different gases contain the same number of particles     Makes sense if the distances between the particles in a gas are very great compared with the sizes of the particles     Under these conditions, the volume of a gas is determined by the number of molecules present, not by the size of the individual particles English physicist who studied electrical discharges in cathode-ray tubes J.J. Thomson What is a cathode ray tube? A partially evacuated tube What is an electron? A stream of negatively charged particles What is the charge-to-mass ratio of an electron? e/m= -1.76 × 10g C/g [e represents the charge on the electron in coloumbs (C) and m represents the electron mass in grams] Explain the plum pudding model The electrons are like raisins dispersed in a pudding (the positive charge cloud) What is radioactivity? Spontaneous emission of radiation by uranium What are the three types of radioactive emission? Gamma (y) rays, beta (β) particles and alpha (a) particles A gamma (y) ray A high-energy "light" beta (β) particles A high-speed electron alpha (a) particles has a charge twice that of the electron and with the opposite sign (2+) What is a nuclear atom? An atom with a dense center of a positive charge (aka the nucleus)with electrons moving around the nucleus at a distance that is large relative to the nuclear radius Protons Have a positive charge equal in magnitude to the electron's negative charge Neutrons Virtually have the same mass as a proton but no charge What are two striking things about the nucleus? It's small size compared to the overall size of the atom and its high density Why does the number of electrons possessed affect its ability to interact with other atoms? The electrons constitute most of the atomic volume thus are the parts that "intermingle" when atoms combine to form molecules What are isotopes? Atoms that have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons What is an atomic number? Number of protons in an element What is a mass number? The total number of protons and neutrons Scientist who first recognized that chemical compounds are collections of atoms John Dalton Chemical bonds The forces that hold atoms together in compounds Covalent bonds One way atoms form bonds by sharing electrons Molecule A collection of atoms that result from a covalent bond Chemical formula A method for representing molecules in which symbols for the elements are used to indicate the types of atoms and subscripts are used to indicate the relative numbers of atoms What is the space-filling model? A model of methane that shows the relative sizes of the atoms as well as their relative orientation in the molecule Structural formula A method for representing molecules in which the individual bonds are shown (indicated by lines) Ion An atom or a group of atoms that has a net positive or negative charge Cation A positive ion Anion An ion with a negative charge Ionic solid A solid consisting of oppositely charged ions Periodic table A chart that shows all the known elements and gives a good  deal of information about each Metals (4) Elements that have characteristic physical properties such as efficient conduction of heat and electricity, malleability, ductility (they can be pulled into wires), and often a lustrous appearance What is metal's relationship with electrons and ions? They tend to lose electrons to form positive ions Nonmetals Bond to each other by forming covalent bonds What is nonmetal's relationship with electrons and ions? They tend to gain electrons to form negative ions Groups/families Elements in the same vertical columns on the periodic table that have similar chemical properties Alkali metals Very active elements that readily form ions with a 1+ charge when they react with nonmetals Alkaline earth metals Form ions with a 2+ charge when they react with nonmetals halogens Form diatomic molecules Noble gases They all exist under normal conditions as monatomic gases and have little chemical reactivity Periods Horizontal rows in the periodic table Binary compounds Compounds composed of two elements Binary ionic compounds Contain a positive ion (cation) always written first in the formula and a negative ion (anion) Naming type 1 binary compounds (3) 1. The cation is always named first and the anion second2. A monatomic cation takes its name from the name of the element 3. A monatomic anion is named by taking the root of the element name and adding     -ide Binary ionic compounds type 2 (3) When the metal forms more than one type of ionic compound with a given anionIn a case such as this, the charge on the metal ion must be specifiedRoman numerals indicate the charge of the ion Another system for naming ionic compounds that only form two ions The ion with the higher charge has a name ending in -ic, while the ion with the lower charge has a name ending in -ous When to use the Roman numeral (2) Only in cases where more than one ionic compound forms between a given pair of elementsElements that only form one cation do not need roman numerals (group 1A, group 2A, and aluminum) Oxyanions Anions that contain an atom of a given element and different numbers of oxygen atoms Binary covalent compounds (2) Formed between two nonmetalsThese compounds do not contain ions, but are named very similarly to binary ionic compounds Naming binary covalent compounds (3) The first element in the formula is named first, using the full element nameThe next element is named as if it were an anionPrefixes are used to denote the number of atoms present; the prefix mono is never used Acid A molecule in which one or more H+ ions are attached to an anion Naming acids If the name of the anion ends in -ide, the acid is named with the prefix hydro- and and the suffix -ic When the anion contains oxygen... The acidic name is formed from the root name of the anion with the suffix of -ic or -ous, depending on the name of the anion If the name of the anion ends in -ate... the suffix -ic is added to the root name If the anion has an -ite ending... The -ite is replaced with -ous AuthorZara2774 ID341469 Card SetChemistry Chapter 2 DescriptionChemistry Chapter 2 Updated2018-07-30T06:39:55Z Show Answers