Chemistry Chapter 2

  1. How many yards are in a mile?
  2. What are the three measuring systems for temperature?
    Kelvin, Celsius, and Fahrenheit
  3. How would one convert from Celsius to Kelvin?
    Add 273.15
  4. How would one convert from Kelvin to Celsius?
    Subtract 273.15
  5. How many quartz are in a gallon?
  6. What is the scale for converting from Fahrenheit to Celsius?
    9°F over 5°C
  7. What is the scale for converting from Celsius to Fahrenheit?
    5°C over 9°F
  8. What is the corresponding Fahrenheit temperature to Celsius zero point?
  9. How would one convert from Fahrenheit to Celsius?
    (TF-32°F)by 5°C over 9°F
  10. How would one convert from Celsius to Fahrenheit?
    TC by 9°F over 5°C + 32°F
  11. What is systematic metallurgy?
    Extraction of metals from ores
  12. First scientist to carefully measure the relationship between the pressure and volume of air
    Robert Boyle
  13. Scientist who explained the true nature of combustion
    Antoine Lavoisier
  14. Law of definite proportion/ Proust's Law
    A given compound always contains exactly the same proportion of elements by mass
  15. Law of Multiple Proportions
    When two elements form a series of compounds, the ratios of the masses of the second element that combine with 1 g of the first element can always be reduced to small whole numbers
  16. Dalton's Atomic Theory (4)
    • Each element is made up of tiny particles called atoms
    • The atoms of a given element are identical; the atoms of different elements are different in some fundamental way or ways
    • Chemical compounds are formed when atoms of different elements combine with each other. A given compound always has the same relative numbers and types of atoms
    • Chemical reactions involve reorganization of atoms- changes in the way they are bound together. The atoms themselves are not changed in a chemical reaction
  17. Explain the process of weighing
    Mass is often determined by comparison to a standard mass
  18. Avogadro's hypothesis (3)
    • 1. At the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of different gases contain the same number of particles
    •      Makes sense if the distances between the particles in a gas are very great compared with the sizes of the particles
    •      Under these conditions, the volume of a gas is determined by the number of molecules present, not by the size of the individual particles
  19. English physicist who studied electrical discharges in cathode-ray tubes
    J.J. Thomson
  20. What is a cathode ray tube?
    A partially evacuated tube
  21. What is an electron?
    A stream of negatively charged particles
  22. What is the charge-to-mass ratio of an electron?
    e/m= -1.76 × 10g C/g

    [e represents the charge on the electron in coloumbs (C) and m represents the electron mass in grams]
  23. Explain the plum pudding model
    The electrons are like raisins dispersed in a pudding (the positive charge cloud)
  24. What is radioactivity?
    Spontaneous emission of radiation by uranium
  25. What are the three types of radioactive emission?
    Gamma (y) rays, beta (β) particles and alpha (a) particles
  26. A gamma (y) ray
    A high-energy "light"
  27. beta (β) particles
    A high-speed electron
  28. alpha (a) particles
    has a charge twice that of the electron and with the opposite sign (2+)
  29. What is a nuclear atom?
    An atom with a dense center of a positive charge (aka the nucleus)with electrons moving around the nucleus at a distance that is large relative to the nuclear radius
  30. Protons
    Have a positive charge equal in magnitude to the electron's negative charge
  31. Neutrons
    Virtually have the same mass as a proton but no charge
  32. What are two striking things about the nucleus?
    It's small size compared to the overall size of the atom and its high density
  33. Why does the number of electrons possessed affect its ability to interact with other atoms?
    The electrons constitute most of the atomic volume thus are the parts that "intermingle" when atoms combine to form molecules
  34. What are isotopes?
    Atoms that have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons
  35. What is an atomic number?
    Number of protons in an element
  36. What is a mass number?
    The total number of protons and neutrons
  37. Scientist who first recognized that chemical compounds are collections of atoms
    John Dalton
  38. Chemical bonds
    The forces that hold atoms together in compounds
  39. Covalent bonds
    One way atoms form bonds by sharing electrons
  40. Molecule
    A collection of atoms that result from a covalent bond
  41. Chemical formula
    A method for representing molecules in which symbols for the elements are used to indicate the types of atoms and subscripts are used to indicate the relative numbers of atoms
  42. What is the space-filling model?
    A model of methane that shows the relative sizes of the atoms as well as their relative orientation in the molecule
  43. Structural formula
    A method for representing molecules in which the individual bonds are shown (indicated by lines)
  44. Ion
    An atom or a group of atoms that has a net positive or negative charge
  45. Cation
    A positive ion
  46. Anion
    An ion with a negative charge
  47. Ionic solid
    A solid consisting of oppositely charged ions
  48. Periodic table
    A chart that shows all the known elements and gives a good  deal of information about each
  49. Metals (4)
    Elements that have characteristic physical properties such as efficient conduction of heat and electricity, malleability, ductility (they can be pulled into wires), and often a lustrous appearance
  50. What is metal's relationship with electrons and ions?
    They tend to lose electrons to form positive ions
  51. Nonmetals
    Bond to each other by forming covalent bonds
  52. What is nonmetal's relationship with electrons and ions?
    They tend to gain electrons to form negative ions
  53. Groups/families
    Elements in the same vertical columns on the periodic table that have similar chemical properties
  54. Alkali metals
    Very active elements that readily form ions with a 1+ charge when they react with nonmetals
  55. Alkaline earth metals
    Form ions with a 2+ charge when they react with nonmetals
  56. halogens
    Form diatomic molecules
  57. Noble gases
    They all exist under normal conditions as monatomic gases and have little chemical reactivity
  58. Periods
    Horizontal rows in the periodic table
  59. Binary compounds
    Compounds composed of two elements
  60. Binary ionic compounds
    Contain a positive ion (cation) always written first in the formula and a negative ion (anion)
  61. Naming type 1 binary compounds (3)
    • 1. The cation is always named first and the anion second
    • 2. A monatomic cation takes its name from the name of the element 
    • 3. A monatomic anion is named by taking the root of the element name and adding     -ide
  62. Binary ionic compounds type 2 (3)
    • When the metal forms more than one type of ionic compound with a given anion
    • In a case such as this, the charge on the metal ion must be specified
    • Roman numerals indicate the charge of the ion
  63. Another system for naming ionic compounds that only form two ions
    The ion with the higher charge has a name ending in -ic, while the ion with the lower charge has a name ending in -ous
  64. When to use the Roman numeral (2)
    • Only in cases where more than one ionic compound forms between a given pair of elements
    • Elements that only form one cation do not need roman numerals (group 1A, group 2A, and aluminum)
  65. Oxyanions
    Anions that contain an atom of a given element and different numbers of oxygen atoms
  66. Binary covalent compounds (2)
    • Formed between two nonmetals
    • These compounds do not contain ions, but are named very similarly to binary ionic compounds
  67. Naming binary covalent compounds (3)
    • The first element in the formula is named first, using the full element name
    • The next element is named as if it were an anion
    • Prefixes are used to denote the number of atoms present; the prefix mono is never used
  68. Acid
    A molecule in which one or more Hions are attached to an anion
  69. Naming acids
    If the name of the anion ends in -ide, the acid is named with the prefix hydro- and and the suffix -ic
  70. When the anion contains oxygen...
    The acidic name is formed from the root name of the anion with the suffix of -ic or -ous, depending on the name of the anion
  71. If the name of the anion ends in -ate...
    the suffix -ic is added to the root name
  72. If the anion has an -ite ending...
    The -ite is replaced with -ous
Card Set
Chemistry Chapter 2
Chemistry Chapter 2