chapter 6 and 7

  1. every physical process of weather is accompanied by, or is the result of, a _____
    heat exchange
  2. what causes variations in altimeter settings between weather reporting points
    unequal heating of the earths surface
  3. the wind at 5,000 AGL is southwesterly while the surface is southerly. this difference in direction is primarily due to_____
    friction between the wind and the surface
  4. convective circulation patterns associated with sea breezes are caused by _____
    cool, dense air moving inland from over the water
  5. the most frequent type of ground or surface based temperature inversion is that which is produced by _____
    terrestrail radiation on a clear, relatively still night
  6. what is meant by the term dewpoint?
    the temperature to which the air must be cooled to become saturated
  7. the amount of water vapor the air can hold depends on the ____
    air temperature
  8. clouds, fog, or dew will always form when _____
    water vapor condenses
  9. what are the processes by which moisture is added to unsaturated air
    evaporation and sublimation
  10. if the temperature/ dewpoint spread is small and decreasing, and the temperature is 62 degrees F, what type of weather is most likely to develop
    fog or low clouds
  11. one of the most easily recognized discontinuities across a front is
    a change in temperature
  12. one weather phenomenon which will alwasy occur when flying across a front is a change in the ___
    wind direction
  13. which weather conditions should be expected beneath a low level temperature inversion layer when the relative humidity is high
    smooth air, poor visibility, fog, haze, or low clouds
  14. what measurement can be used to determine the stability of the atmosphere
    actual lapse rate
  15. what would decrease the stability of an air mass
    warming from below
  16. what is a characteristic of stable air
    stratiform clouds
  17. what feature is associated with a temperature inversion
    a stable layer of air
  18. what are characteristics of a moist unstable air mass
    cumuliform clouds and showery precipitation
  19. what are the characteristics of unstable air
    turbulence and good surface visibility
  20. a stable air mass is most likely to have which characteristic
    poor surface visibility
  21. moist stable air flowing upslope can be expected to ____
    produce stratus type clouds
  22. if an unstable air mass is forced upward, what type clouds can be expected
    clouds with considerable vertical development and associated turbulence
  23. steady precipitation preceding a front is an indication of
    stratiform clouds with little or no turbulence
  24. the conditions necessary for the formation of cumulonimbus clouds are a lifting action and
    unstable moist air
  25. what is the approximate base of the cumulus clouds if the surface air temperature at 1000 feet MSL is 70 F and the dew point is 48 F
    • 6000 feet
    • 78-48= 22
    • 22/4.4=5
    • 5x1000= 5000AGL
    • 5000AGL+1000MSL you are at = 6000MSL
  26. at approximately what altitude above the surface would the pilot expect the base of the cumuliform clouds if the surface air temp is 82 F and the dew point is 38 F
    • 10,000 AGL
    • 82-38=44
    • 44/4.4=10
    • 10x1000=10,000AGL
  27. the suffix nimbus used in naming clouds means
    a rain cloud
  28. clouds are divided into four families according to their
    height range
  29. what clouds have the greatest turbulence
  30. an almond or lense shaped cloud which appears stationary, but which may contain winds of 50 knots or more is referred to as
    a lenticular cloud
  31. crests of standing mountain waves may be marked by stationary, lens shaped clouds known as
    standing linticular clouds
  32. what type of clouds indicate convective turbulence
    towering cumulus clouds
  33. possible mountain wave turbulence could be anticipated when winds of 40 knots or greater blow
    across a mountain ridge, and the air is stable
  34. upon encountering sever turbulence, which flight condition should the pilot attempt to maintain
    level flight attitude
  35. what feature is normally associated with the cumulus stage of a thunder storm
    continuous updraft
  36. which weather phenomenon signals the beginning of the mature stage of a thunderstorm
    precipitation beginning to fall
  37. what conditions are necessary for the formation of thunderstorms
    high humidity, lifting force, and unstable conditions
  38. during the life cycle of a thunderstorm, which stage is characterized predominately by downdrafts
  39. thunderstorms rear their greatest intensity during the____
    mature stage
  40. thunderstorms which generally produce the most intense hazard to aircraft are
    squall line thunderstorms
  41. the mature stage of a thunderstorm begins with ____
    the start of precipitation
  42. a nonfrontal, narrow band of active thunderstorms that often develop ahead of a cold front is know as a ____
    squall line
  43. if there is thunderstorm activity in the vicinity of an airport at which you plan to land, which hazardous atmospheric phenomenon might be expected on the landing approach
    wind-shear turbulence
  44. which weather phenomenon is always associated with a thunderstorm
  45. where does wind shear occur
    at all altitudes in all directions
  46. when may hazardous wind shear be expected
    in areas of low-level temperature inversion, frontal zones, and clear air turbulence
  47. a pilot can expect a wind-shear zone in a temperature inversion whenever the windspeed at 2000 to 4000 feet above the surface is at least____
    25 knots
  48. the presence of ice pellets at the surface is evidence that there______
    is a temperature inversion with freezing rain at a higher altitude
  49. on in flight condition necessary for structural icing to form is
    visible moisture
  50. in which environment is aircraft structural ice most likely to have the highest accumulation rate
    freezing rain
  51. during a cross country flight you picked up rime icing which you estimate is 1/2 inch thick on the leading edge of your wings. you are now below the clouds at 2000 AGL and are approaching your destination airport under VFR. visibility under the clouds is more than 10 miles. winds at the destination airport are 8 knots right down the runway, and the surface temp is 3 C. you decide to___
    use a faster than normal approach and landing speed
  52. what situation is most conductive to the formation of radiation fog
    warm, moist air over low, flatland areas on clear calm nights
  53. in which situation is advection fog most likely to form
    an air mass moving inland from the coast in winter
  54. what types of fog depend upon wind in order to exist
    advection fog and upslope fog
  55. which conditions result in the formation of frost
    the temperature of the collecting surface is at or below the dewpoint of the adjacent air and the dewpoint is below freezing
  56. low-level turbulence can occur and icing can become hazardous in which type of fog
    steam fog
  57. why is frost considered hazardous to flight
    frost spoils the smooth flow of air over the wings, thereby decreasing lifting capability
  58. refer to figure 12
    which of the reporting stations have VFR weather
    KINK, KBOI, and KLAX
  59. for aviation purposes, ceiling is defined as the height above the earth surface of the _____
    lowest broken or overcast layer or vertical visibility into an obscuration
  60. refer to figure 12
    what are the wind conditions at Wink, Texas KINK
    110 degrees at 12 gusting 18
  61. refer to figure 12
    the remarks section for KMDW has RAB35 listed. this entry means____
    rain began at 1835Z
  62. refer to figure 12
    what are the current conditions depicted for chicago midway airport KMDW
    sky 700 feet overcast, visibility 1-1/2 SM, rain
  63. refer to figure 14
    the base and tops of the overcast layer reported by a pilot are____
    7200 feet MSL and 8900 feet MSL
  64. refer to figure 14
    the wind and temperature at 12,000 MSL as reported by a pilot are____
    080 degrees at 21 knots and -7 C
  65. refer to figure 14
    if the terrain elevation is 1295 MSL, what is the height above ground level of the bese of the ceiling
    505 AGL
  66. Refer to figure 14
    the intensity of the turbulence reported at a specific altitude is ____
    light from 5,500 to 7,200
  67. refer to figure 14
    the intensity and type of icing reported by a pilot is
    light to moderate rime
  68. refer to figure 15
    what is the valid period for the TAF for KMEM
    12th 1800Z to 13th 2400Z
  69. refer to figure 15
    in the TAF for KMEM, what does SHRA stand for
    rain showers
  70. refer to figure 15
    between 1000Z and 1200Z the visibility at KMEM is forecast to be
    3 statute miles
  71. refer to figure 15
    what is the forecast wind for KMEM from 1600Z until the end of the forecast
    variable in direction at 6 knots
  72. refer to figure 15
    in the TAF from KOKC, the FM (FROM) group is forecast for the hours from 1600 Z to 2200Z with the wind from
    180 degrees at 10 knots
  73. refer to figure 15
    in the TSAF from KOKC the clear sky becomes_____
    overcast at 2000 feet during the forecast period between 2200Z and 2400Z
  74. refer to figure 15
    during the time period from 0600Z to 0800Z, what visibility is forecast for KOKC
    greater than 6 statute miles
  75. refer to figure 15
    the only cloud type forecast is TAF reports is___
  76. the best determine general forecast weather conditions covering a flight information region, the pilot should refer to ____
    graphical forecasts for aviation GFA
  77. refer to figure 17
    what wind is forecast for STL at 9000 feet
    230 true at 32 knots
  78. refer to figure 17
    what wind forecast for STL at 12000 feet
    230 true at 39 knots
  79. refer to figure 17
    determine the wind and temperature aloft forecast for DEN at 9000 feet
    230 true at 21 knots and -4C
  80. refer to figure 17
    determine the wind and temperature aloft forecast for MKC at 6000 feet
    200 true at 6 knots and temp +3 C
  81. what values are use for winds aloft forecasts
    true direction in knots
  82. when the term "light and variable" is used in reference to a winds aloft forecast, the coded group and windspeed is ___
    9900 and less than 5 knots
  83. what is indcated when a current CONVECTIVE SIGMET forecasts thunderstorms
    thunderstorms obscured by massive cloud layers
  84. what nformation is contained in a CONVECTIVE SIGMET
    tornadoes, embedded thunderstorms, an dhail 3/4 inch or greater in diameter
  85. SIGMETs are issued as a waring of weather conditions hazardous to which aircraft
    all aircraft
  86. which in flight advisory would contain information on severe icing not associated with thunderstorms
  87. AIRMETs are advisories of significant weather phenomena but lower intensities than SIGMETs and are intended for dissiminatin to ____
    all pilots
  88. when telephoning a weather briefing facility for preflight weather information, pilots should state____
    whether they intend to fly VFR only
  89. to get a complete weather briefing for the planned flight, the pilot should request
    a standard briefing
  90. which type weather briefing should a pilot request, when departing within the hour, if no preliminary weather information has been received
    a standard briefing
  91. which type of weather briefing should a pilot request to supplement mass disseminated data
    an abbreviated briefing
  92. to update a previous weather briefing, a pilot should request
    an abbreviated briefing
  93. a weather briefing that is provided when the information requested is 6 or more hours in advance of the proposed departure time is ____
    an outlook briefing
  94. when requesting weather information for the following morning, a pilot should request ____
    an outlook briefing
  95. what should pilots state initially when telephoning a weather briefing facility for preflight weather information
    the intended route of flight and destination
  96. what should pilots state initially when telephoning a weather briefing facility for preflight weather information
    identify themselves as pilots
  97. when telephoning a weather briefing facility for preflight weather information, pilots should state
    the aircraft identification or the pilots name
  98. what do you state when speaking to a flight service weather briefer
    • type of flight VFR or IFR
    • aircraft ID or pilots name
    • aircraft type
    • departure point
    • route of flight
    • destination
    • altitude
    • estimated time of departure
    • estimated time en route or estimated time of arrival
Card Set
chapter 6 and 7
chapter 6 and 7