Peripheral Nerves and Muscles

  1. 2 major components of the nerve
    • axonal process
    • myelin sheath
  2. one schwann cell makes and maintains _____
    one myelin segment
  3. what are peripheral nerves surrounded by
    perineurial cells
  4. axonal peripheral nerve is ______
    direct damage to the axon
  5. in axonal peripheral damage, first the _____ degenerates, and then the ______ degenerates
    • distal portion
    • myelin
  6. regeneration is by axon ______ and ________
    regrowth and re-myelination
  7. demyelinating peripheral nerve damage is ______
    direct damage to the schwann cells
  8. what is the result of demyelinating peripheral nerve damage
    slow nerve conduction
  9. what are the 3 types of peripheral nuropathies
    • polyneuropathy
    • polyneuritis multiplex
    • mononeuropathy
  10. describe polyneuropathy
    • symmetrical and length-dependent
    • "stocking and gloves"
  11. what is "stocking and gloves"
    loss of sensation and paresthesia in toes that spreads upwards and involves the hands
  12. what does polyneuritis multiplex affect?
    randomly affects individual nerves
  13. example of a mononeuropathy (think dentistry)
    carpal tunnel
  14. acute demyelinating disorder of motor neurons
    Guillain-Barré Syndrome
  15. what is Guillain-Barré Syndrome triggered by
    infection or vaccine
  16. Guillain-Barré Syndrome leads to what kind of response
  17. treatment for Guillain-Barré Syndrome
  18. ______ is the most common cause of peripheral neuropathy
  19. most common form of peripheral neuropathy
    distal symmetric sensorimotor polyneuropathy
  20. myasthenia gravis has autoantibodies against what
    acetylcholine receptors
  21. T/F: myasthenia gravis is more common in males
    FALSE, more common in females (autoimmune disease)
  22. progressive atrophy of muscles deprived of innervation causes what kind of muscle fiber atrophy
  23. prolonged bed rest or casting of broken bone causes what kind of muscle fiber atrophy
    disuse atrophy
  24. long term, high dose steroids causes what kind of muscle fiber atrophy
    glucocorticoid exposure
  25. what type of hereditary disease is Duchenne Muscle Dystrophy, who is more likely to get it
    X-linked recessive, males
  26. duchenne muscular dystrophy is a mutation that leads to the absence of ______
  27. what is special about the legs of people who have duchenne muscular dystrophy
    pseudo hypertrophy of calves
  28. death of duchenne muscular dystrophy in their 20s due to ______ and _____
    • respiratory failure
    • pneumonia
  29. thyrotoxic myopathy has elevated ______
  30. in ethanol myopathy _____ _____ can lead to ______ which can lead to _______ ______
    • binge drinking 
    • rhabdomyolysis
    • renal damage
  31. what are schwannomas
    benign, encapsulated neoplasms
  32. schwannomas most commonly affect which cranial nerve
  33. schwannomas--loss of function of the merlin gene on which chromosome
  34. localized cutaneous neurofibroma consists of a _____ ______
    single lesion
  35. plexiform neurofibromas grow _____ within a nerve
  36. diffuse neurofibromas are _____ and ______
    infiltrating and disfiguring
  37. what hereditary transmission is neurofibromatosis
    autosomal dominant
  38. neurofibromatosis has a mutation of which tumor suppressor
    neurofibromin, a negative regulator of Ras
Card Set
Peripheral Nerves and Muscles
pathology of the peripheral nerves and muscles