Diseases of Pregnancy
most placental inflammation infections ascend through the ____ _____
what can ascending infections lead to? (2)
premature birth or rupture of membranes
what is ectopic pregnancy
implantation of fertilized ovum any place other than the uterine body
where do ectopic pregnancies commonly occur?
90% ductal (tubal), fallopian tubes
complication of ectopic pregnancy (2)
rupture of placenta
what is preeclampsia and when does it occur
development of hypertension, proteinuria , and edema in the third trimester
4 consequences of preeclampsia
inadequate blood flow to placenta
what can eclampsia lead to? (2)
DIC--disseminated intravascular coagulation
what do fibrocystic changes present as?
why are fibrocystic changes found in 60-80% of women at autopsy
exaggeration and distortion of NORMAL cyclic breast changes
non-proliferative change leads to _____ and ____
proliferative change leads to _____ and _____
what is the most common type of fibrocystic change?
multiple lumens, papillary projections, atypical cells. what does this describe?
epithelial hyperplasia (proliferative fibrocystic change)
proliferation of small ductules and acini, glands back to back, interlobular fibrosis. what does this describe?
sclerosing adenosis (proliferative fibrocystic change)
how do you distinguish fibrocystic changes from cancer? (2)
what causes acute mastitis?
bacteria gain access through the nipple (staph or strep)
why is fat necrosis important
it produces a mass
what is the most common benign tumor of the female breasts?
what is fibroadenoma associated with?
increased estrogen activity
what is the neoplastic component of fibroadenoma
breast carcinoma is 5x more common in ______ than in _____. Why?
what 3 genes are risk factors for breast cancer
p53 Li-Fraumeni syndrome
DBC--deleted in breast cancer gene
what is the worst risk factor for breast cancer?
having a family member that was premenopausal and bilateral
prevention for breast cancer (2)
90% of breast carcinoma arises in the _______
3 causes of breast carcinoma (pathogenesis)
what are the 3 types of non-invasive breast carcinomas
70% of breast carcinomas are _______
invasive ductal carcinomas
4 types of invasive breast carcinoma
invasive ductal carcinoma
infiltrating lobular carcinoma
what is gynecomastia and what is the cause
enlargement of male breast
Diseases of Pregnancy
diseases of pregnancy