Diseases of Pregnancy

  1. most placental inflammation infections ascend through the ____ _____
    birth canal
  2. what can ascending infections lead to? (2)
    • premature birth or rupture of membranes
    • acute chorioamnionitis
  3. what is ectopic pregnancy
    implantation of fertilized ovum any place other than the uterine body
  4. where do ectopic pregnancies commonly occur?
    90% ductal (tubal), fallopian tubes
  5. complication of ectopic pregnancy (2)
    • intraperitoneal hemorrhage
    • rupture of placenta
  6. what is preeclampsia and when does it occur
    development of hypertension, proteinuria , and edema in the third trimester
  7. 4 consequences of preeclampsia
    • inadequate blood flow to placenta
    • reduced vasodilation
    • placental infarcts
    • thromboplastin substances
  8. what can eclampsia lead to? (2)
    • DIC--disseminated intravascular coagulation 
    • convulsions
  9. what do fibrocystic changes present as?
    palpable lumps
  10. why are fibrocystic changes found in 60-80% of women at autopsy
    exaggeration and distortion of NORMAL cyclic breast changes
  11. non-proliferative change leads to _____ and ____
    • fibrosis
    • cysts
  12. proliferative change leads to _____ and _____
    • epithelial hyperplasia 
    • sclerosing adenosis
  13. what is the most common type of fibrocystic change?
    non-proliferative change
  14. multiple lumens, papillary projections, atypical cells. what does this describe?
    epithelial hyperplasia (proliferative fibrocystic change)
  15. proliferation of small ductules and acini, glands back to back, interlobular fibrosis. what does this describe?
    sclerosing adenosis (proliferative fibrocystic change)
  16. how do you distinguish fibrocystic changes from cancer? (2)
    • biopsy
    • histopathologic examination
  17. what causes acute mastitis?
    bacteria gain access through the nipple (staph or strep)
  18. why is fat necrosis important
    it produces a mass
  19. what is the most common benign tumor of the female breasts?
  20. what is fibroadenoma associated with?
    increased estrogen activity
  21. what is the neoplastic component of fibroadenoma
    fibrous tissue
  22. breast carcinoma is 5x more common in ______ than in _____. Why?
    • US
    • Japan
    • environmental reasons
  23. what 3 genes are risk factors for breast cancer
    • p53 Li-Fraumeni syndrome
    • BRCA-1 mutation 
    • DBC--deleted in breast cancer gene
  24. what is the worst risk factor for breast cancer?
    having a family member that was premenopausal and bilateral
  25. prevention for breast cancer (2)
    • self-examination
    • mammograms
  26. 90% of breast carcinoma arises in the _______
    ductal epithelium
  27. 3 causes of breast carcinoma (pathogenesis)
    • genetic
    • hormonal
    • environmental
  28. what are the 3 types of non-invasive breast carcinomas
    • intraductal in-situ
    • lobular in-situ 
    • paget disease
  29. 70% of breast carcinomas are _______
    invasive ductal carcinomas
  30. 4 types of invasive breast carcinoma
    • invasive ductal carcinoma
    • medullary carcinoma
    • colloid carcinoma
    • infiltrating lobular carcinoma
  31. what is gynecomastia and what is the cause
    • enlargement of male breast 
    • estrogen excess
Card Set
Diseases of Pregnancy
diseases of pregnancy