Digestive System

  1. Major components of the Digestive System?
    • Ailmentary canal 
    • Accessory digestive organs
  2. Alimentary canal (GI Tract)
    Mouth, (most) pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small
  3. Accessory Digestive Organs
    Tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, & gallbladder
  4. Major Functions
    • Mechanical and chemical breakdown of food
    • Absorption
    • Solid waste removal
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  6. Peritoneum
    Thin membranes that line the walls of the abdominal cavity and covers much of the viscera

    • Parietal peritoneum lines walls of the cavity
    • Visceral peritoneum covers the viscera
    • Peritoneal cavity contains a small amount of fluid to allow organs to move freely
  7. Mesentery
    • Double layers folds of peritoneum that connect organs to one another & to the body wall
    • Contain blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves
  8. Retoperitoneal
    Organs that lie against the posterior body wall & are covered by peritoneum on their anterior surface only
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  10. Rugae
    When the stomach is empty, mucosa of stomach lies in temporary longitudinal folds
  11. 3 Layers of muscularis externa
    • Outer longitudinal
    • Middle circular
    • Inner oblique
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    • Greater Omentum
    • Attaches to greater curvature of stomach & transverse colon
    • Drapes over small intestines like an "apron"
  13. Cardia
    Where the esophagus meets the stomach
  14. Pyloric Antrum
    Bottom Curve
  15. Pyloric Sphincter
    Doorway to move food along
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    • Lesser Omentum
    • Connects stomach to the liver
  17. Pancreas
    • Accessory Digestive Organ
    • Exocrine gland for digestion (99%)
    • Endocrine (glucagon & insulin) (1%)

    Looks fatty
  18. Pancreas Duct Pathway
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    • Pancreatic juice comes out of the small ducts that form the pancreatic duct
    • Duct joins the common bile duct to form the hepatopancreatic ampulla
    • Drains into the duodenum at the major duodenal papilla (opening)
  19. Liver
    • In the upper right quadrant
    • Produces bile & detoxifies blood from the GI tract

    • 4 Lobes:
    • Right, Left, Quadrate, Caudate
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  22. Gallbladder
    • Concentrates & stores excess bile from the liver
    • Always green
  23. Gallstones
    Hardened bile
  24. Small Intestine Parts
    • Duodenum
    • Jejunum
    • Ileum
  25. Small Intestine
    • Digestion & absorption of nutrients
    • Contains pilica circulares, villi, & microvilli which increase surface area
  26. Mesentery Proper
    Anchors most of the small intestine to the posterior abdominal wall
  27. Large Intestine
    • Reabsorption of electrolytes and water 
    • Formation & elimination of feces
  28. Cecum
    • First portion of the large intestine
    • Entered from the ileum through the ileocecal valve
    • Appendix hangs from this
  29. Colon divisions
    • Ascending colon
    • Transverse colon
    • Descending colon
    • Sigmoid colon
    • Rectum
    • Anal canal
  30. Teniae coli
    Longitudinal band of smooth muscle
  31. Haustra
    Sac-like pouches
  32. Omental Appendices
    Fat deposits
  33. Mesocolon
    • Anchors portions of colon to posterior abdominal wall
    • Peritoneal folds

    • Transverse mesocolon
    • Sigmoid mesocolon
Author
Zaqxz
ID
341200
Card Set
Digestive System
Description
adkl
Updated