A&P I test 1

  1. Anatomy
    the study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another
  2. Surface anatomy
    • superficial anatomy
    • study of internal structures as they relate to the overlaying skin
    • study of general form of body's surface
  3. Regional anatomy
    • all structures in one part of the body
    • anatomical organization of specific area of body
    • ex head, trunk, neck
  4. sectional anatomy
    study of relationships of the body's struction

    examins cross section of tissue or organ
  5. systemic anatomy
    gross anatomy of the body studied by system

    ex skel, cardio, muscular systems
  6. clinical anatomy
    include many subspecialties important in clinical practice

    ex pathological, radiographic, surgical
  7. developmental anatomy
    traces structural changes throughout life

    study the changes in form that takes place between conception and adulthood
  8. embryology
    study of developmental changes of the body before birth
  9. subdivisions of microscopic anatomy
    • CYTOLOGY- study of internal structior of cell
    • HISTOLOGY- study of tissues
  10. physiology
    • study of function/working of the human body
    • the study of the function of the body's structural machinery
  11. cell physiology
    • study of the function of cells
    • looks at the chemistry of the cell
  12. patholgogical physiology
    study of structural changes caused by disease
  13. radiographic anatomy
    study of internal structures visualized by specialized scanning procedures such as: Xray, MRI, CT scan
  14. molecular biology
    study of anatomical structures at a sub-cellular level
  15. in physiology physics helps explain
    • 1 electrical currents
    • 2 blood pressure
    • 3 the way muscle uses bone for movement
  16. atom
    smalles stable unit of matter
  17. principle of complementaryity
    • a) function always reflects structure
    • b) what a structure can do depends on its specific form
  18. integumentary system
    • forms the external body covering
    • -composed of the skin, sweat glands, oil glands, hair and nails
    • -protects deep tissues from injury 
    • -synthesizes vitamin D
  19. skeletal system
    • -composed of bone, cartilage, ligaments, joints
    • -protects and supports body organs
    • -provides the framework for muscles
    • -site of blood cell formation
    • -stores minerals
    • -spinal, pelvic, cranial, and throasic cavities are prtected by bones but not the abdominal cavity
  20. Muscular system
    • -composed of muscles and tendons
    • -allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression
    • -maintains posture
    • -produces heat
  21. Nervous system
    • -composed of the heart,& blood vessels
    • -the heart pumps blood
    • -the blood vessels transport blood throughout the body
  22. lymphatic system
    • composed of red bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes and lympatic vessels
    • -picks up fluid leaks from blood vessels and returns it to blood
    • -disposes of debris in the lymphatic streams
    • -houses white blood cells invloved with immunity
  23. respiratory system
    • -composed of the nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
    • -keeps blood supplied with oxygen and romes carbon monoxide
  24. digestive system
    • composed of oral cavity , esoph, stomch, sm intestine,lretum, anus
    • -breaks down food into absorbable units that ener blood 
    • eliminated indigestible foodstuff as feces
  25. urinary system
    • made of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
    • eliminates nirtogenous wastes from the body and metabolic wastes
    • regulates water, electrolytes an pH balance
  26. male reproductive system
    • made of prostated, penis, testes, scrotum , ductus deferens
    • testes produce sperm & male hormone
    • ducts and glands delliver sperm to female repro tract
  27. female reproductive system
    • made of mammary glands, ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina
    • ovaries produce eggs & female sex hormones
    • remaining structures serve as sites for fertilization and development of fetus
    • mammary glands produce milk
  28. what systems eliminated metabolic wastes
    urinary digestive and respiratory systems
  29. what systems take in nutrients and Ofrom external environment
    digestive & respiratory
  30. what does the blood distribute
    nutrients and blood
  31. responsiveness
    ability to sense changes in the env and respond to them
  32. digestion
    breakdown of ingestion foodstuff
  33. metabolism
    all the chmical reations that occur in the body
  34. cellular level of necessary life functions
    • accomplished by plasma membranes
    • by the cell membrane
  35. anabolism
    • biosynthesis
    • A+ B => AB

    takes energy to creat a chemical bonds
  36. catabolism
    • degredation
    • ATP => ADP  produces energy
  37. enzymes
    are specific proteins
  38. movement
    locomotion, propulsion (peristalsis) & contractility
  39. Cellular reproduction
    original cell divides and produces 2 identical daughter cells
  40. organismal reproduction
    sperm and egg unite to make a whole new person => zygote
  41. growth
    increase in size of a body part or of the organism
  42. oxygen necessary for
    metabolic reation
  43. nutrients needed for
    energy and cell building
  44. somatic
    non sex cells
  45. normal body temp
    necessary for chemical reations to occur at life-sustaining rates

    37o celcius
  46. atmonsheric pressure
    required for proper breathing and gas exchange in lungs
  47. homeostatsis
    ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment in an ever changing outside world
  48. what factors interact to maintain homeostasis
    • chemical,
    • thermal,
    • neural
  49. 3 interdependent components of homeostatic control mechanism
    • 1)receptors
    • 2) control center
    • 3) effector provides means to respon to stimuli
  50. receptors
    monitor the env and responds to change (stimuli)
  51. control center
    determines the set point at which the variable is maintained
  52. effector
    provides the means to respond to stimuli
  53. negative feedback
    output shuts off the original stimulus
  54. positive feedback
    output enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus
  55. homeostatic imbalance
    overwhelming the usual negative feedback mechanisms allows destructive positive feedback mechanisms to take over
  56. superior/inferior
    toward and away from the head, respectively
  57. anteior (ventral) & posterior
    toward the front ane back of the body
  58. superficial and deep
    toward and away from the body surface
  59. sagital plane
    divides body into L & R
  60. midsagittal or medial
    sagital plane that lies on the midline
  61. frontal or coronal
    divides the body into anterior and posterior parts
  62. transverse or horizontal (cross section)
    divides the body into superior and inferior parts
  63. oblique section
    cuts made diagonally
  64. anatomical variability
    humans vary slightly in both external and internal anatomy
  65. types of anatomical variability
    • nerves /blood vessels may  be somewhat out of place
    • small muscles may be missing
  66. dorsal cavity function and subdivision
    - protocts the nervous system

    divided into cranial and vertebral cavity
  67. cranial cavity
    w/in the skull; encases the brain
  68. vertebral cavity
    • runs w/in the vertebral column 
    • encases the spinal cord
  69. ventral cavity  and its subdivisions
    • houses the internal organs
    • divided into thoracic and abdominopelvic
  70. thoracic cavity subdivisions
    • pleural cavities
    • mediastium
    • pericardial cavity
  71. pleural cavities
    house the lungs
  72. mediastium
    • contains the pericardial cavity
    • surrounds the remaining thoracic organs
  73. abdominopelvic cavity subdivisions
    • aabdominal cavity
    • pelvic cavity
  74. abdominal cavity
    contains the stomach intestines, spleen, liver, and other organs
  75. pelvic cavity
    • lies w/in the pelvis 
    • contains the bladder, reproductive organs & rectum
  76. parietal serosa
    • part of the ventral cavity
    • lines internal body walls
  77. visceral serosa
    • part of ventral body cavity
    • covers the internal organs
  78. serous fluid
    • part of ventral cavity
    • separates the seosae
  79. middle ear cavity
    contains bones (ossicles) transmit sound vibrations
  80. abdominopelvic regions
    • R hypochondriac region
    • R lumbar region
    • R iliac region
    • Epigastric regioin
    • umbilical
    • hypogastric region
    • L hypochondriac
    • L lumbar region
    • L iliac region
  81. Abdominopelvic quadrants
    • R upper
    • L upper
    • R lower
    • L lower
  82. matter
    anyting that has mass and takes up space
  83. bone marrow
    has stem cells that creat blood cells
  84. tendons
    • connect muscles to bone
    • withstand tension
  85. agranulocyetes
    • no granuals
    • microphages and lymphocytes
  86. energy

    the capacity to do work

    • kinetic
    • potential
  87. chemical energy
    stored in bonds of chemical substances
  88. Decomposition reation
    chemiacal reation that breaks a molecule into smaller framents
  89. types of decompositon reations
    • catabolism
    • degradation
    • hydrolysis
    • oxidation
    • exergonic
    • exothermic
  90. electrical enegy
    results from the movement of charged particles or ions across the cell membrane
  91. mechanical energy
    directly involved in moving matter
  92. radiant energy
    • energy traveling in waves
    • (UV, Xray, visible light, etc.)
  93. elements
    unique substances that can't be broken down my ordinary chemical means
  94. atomic symbol
    one or two letter chemical shorthand for each elemnt
  95. chemical proprieties of elements
    pertain to the way atoms interact with one another
  96. oxygen
    • 65% body wt
    • 8 p 8e 8n
  97. Carbon
    • 6p 6e 6n
    • 18.6% total body wt
  98. Hydrogen
    • 1p 1e
    • 9.7 % total body wt
  99. Nitrogen
    7p 7e 7n

    3.2% total body wt
  100. What total % of the body do major elements make up
  101. what total % of the body do lesser/trace elements make up
  102. neutron
    • no charge 
    • mass of one atomic mass unit (amu) or dalton (d)
  103. protons
    • positive charge
    • mass of 1 amu or d
  104. electrons
    • have a negative charge
    •  1/2000 the mass of a proton (0 amu)
  105. planetary model of atom
    electorons move around the nucleus in fixed, circular orbits
  106. orbital model of atom
    regions around the nucleus in which electrons are most likely found
  107. atomic number
    equal to number of protons

    to left as subscrip
  108. mass number
    equal to the number of protons and neutrons

    to left as suprascript
  109. isotopes
    atoms of the same element with differant number of neutrons
  110. atomic weigh
    average of the mass numbers of all isotopes
  111. radioisotopes
    atoms that undergo spontaneous decay (radioactivity)

    are unstable and give off radiation 
  112. mole
    a specific quantity w/ a weight in gram equal to the element's atomic wt

    is equal to its atomic or molecular weight in grams
  113. molecule
    two or more atoms held together by chemical bond
  114. compound
    towo or more differant kinds of atoms chemically bonded together
  115. mixtures
    two or more components physically intermixed
  116. solution
    homogeneous mixturess of components
  117. solvent
    substance present in greatest amount
  118. solute
    substance(s) present in smaller amount
  119. concentration of solution
    • percent or parts per 100 parts
    • molarity or moles per liter (M)
  120. colloids 
    heterogeneous mixtures whose solutes do not settle out
  121. suspensions
    heterogenous mixtures with visible solutes that tend to settle out
  122. mixtures compared w/ compounds
    • a) no chemical bonding takes place in mixtures
    • b) most mixtures can be separated by physical means
    • c) mixtures can be hetero or homo geneous

    • all compunds are homogeneous
    • compounds have ionic & covalent bonds
  123. how are chemical bonds formed
    using the electrons in the outermost energy level
  124. valence shell
    outermost energy level containing chemically active electrons
  125. octet rule
    • except for the first shell which is full with 2 
    • valence shells fill with 8 electrons
  126. chemically inert elements
    have their outermost energy shell fully occupied by electrons

    no chemical bond
  127. chemically reactive elements
    do not have their outermost energy shell fully occupied

    try to form chemical bonds
  128. types of chemical bonds
    • ionic
    • covalent
    • hydrogen
  129. Ions
    • charged atoms resulting from the gain or loss of electrons
    • have unequal # of protons and electorns
  130. anions
    ions that gained one or more electrons

    - charge
  131. cations
    ions that lost one or more electrons

    + charge
  132. formation of an ionic bond
    form between atoms by the transfer of one or more electrons

    example NaCl (sodium chloride)
  133. what do ionic compound form
    crystals instead of individual molecules
  134. covalent bond
    formed by sharing 2 or more electrons
  135. in covalent bonds what does electorn sharing produce
  136. non polar molecules
    electrons are shared equally between atoms

    O2 H2 CH2
  137. polar molecules
    unequal sharing of electrons
  138. electronegative
    atoms with 6 or 7 valence shell electrons
  139. electropositive
    atoms with on or two valence shell electrons
  140. Hydrogen bonds
    too weak to bind atoms together

    • important as intramolecular bonds
    •  - given the molecule a 3D shape
  141. where are hydrogen bonds common
    • in dipoles (such as water)
    •    - and keep together the DNA double stranded molecule between nitrogen bases
  142. what are hydrogen bonds responible for
    surface tension in water
  143. Chemical reation
    • occur when chemical bonds are formed, rearranged, or broken
    • written in symbolic form using chemical equations
  144. what do chemical equations contain
    • number and type of reacting substances and products produced
    • relative amounts of reactants and products
  145. example of chemical reations
    H+H -> H2 (gas)
  146. combination reations
    synthesis reactions which always involve bond formation

    gain energy

    (chemical reaction)
  147. types of combination reations
    • anabolism
    • biosynthesis
    • condensation
    • dehydration
    • reduction
    • endergonic
    • endothermic
  148. Decomposition reaction
    molecules are broken down into smaller molecules

    loss of energy or produce energy to the outside
  149. types of decomposition reactions
    • catabolism
    • degradation
    • hydrolysis
    • oxidation
    • exergonic
    • exothermic
  150. exchange reaction
    • bonds are made and broken
    • (reversible reactions)
  151. oxidation reation
    reactants losing electrons

    hydrogens are electron donors and are oxidized

    loss of energy
  152. Redox reaction
    reactants taking up electrons

    hyrogens are electron acceptors and become reduced

    gain energy
  153. factors influencing rate of chemical reactions
    • temperature
    • particle size
    • concentration
    • catalysts
    • enzymes
  154. concentration effects in chem reations
    higher reacting particle concentrations produce faster reations
  155. catalysts
    increase the rate of a reaction without being chemically changed
  156. organic compound
    • contain carbone
    • are covalently bonded
    • are often large
  157. inorganic compounds
    do not containe carbon

    examples- water, salts, many acids & bases
  158. inorganic compounds that contain carbon
    • CO-carbon monoxide
    • CO2-carbon dioxide
    • CO3-biocarbonate
    • HCO3-carbonate
    • H2CO3-carbonic acid
  159. properies of water
    • *high heat capacity- absorbs and releases large amounts of heat before changing temp
    • *high heat vaporization- changing from liquid to gas requires large amounts of heat
    • *polar solvent proporties- dissolvies ionic substances, forms hydration layers around large charged molecules, serves as body's major transport medium
    • *Reactivity _important part of hydrolysis & dehydration layers around large charged molecules
    • *cushioning -resilient cushion around certain body parts 
  160. Salts
    • inorganic compounds
    • contain cations other than H+ and anioins other than OH- 
    • are electrolytes -conduct electrical currants
  161. OH-
  162. Acids
    • release H+ 
    • proton donors
    • HCL--> H+ +Cl-
  163. Bases
    • realease OH-
    • are proton acceptors
    • NaOH --> Na++OH-
  164. Concentration levels of pH of solutions
    • acidic solutions- higher H+ => lower pH (
    • alkaline solutions- lower H+ concentrations ==>higher pH
    • neutral solutions- equal H+ and OH-
  165. pH levels of acids and bases
    Acidic --pH 0-6.99  (lower pH)

    Basic --pH 7.01-14  (higher pH)
  166. pH levels in body
    • bood  7.9 (weak base)
    • stomach --around 1
    • bladder --around  8
  167. Hydrogen ion abbreviation
  168. hydroxideion abbreviation
  169. Buffers
    • systems that resist abrup and large swings in pH
    • carbonic acid-bicarbonate system
  170. carbonic acid-bicarbonate system
    • a buffer
    • chemical equilibrium between carbonic acid and bicarbonate 
    •   -resists pH changes in the blood
    • Cabonic acid dissociates, reversibly releases bicarbonate ions and proton
  171. Carbohydrates
    • contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
    • are sugars and sacharides
    • major function to supply a source of cellular food

    usually end in -ose
  172. types of carbs
    • monsaccharides (simple sugars)
    •   - gluc, fruct, galact, deoxyrib,and ribose
    • disacharides (double sugars)
    •   -sucrose glu-fructose, lactose glu-galactos, maltose glu-glu
    • polysccharide (polymers)
    •   -glycogen many glucose together
  173. Lipids
    C, H, O but proportions of O is less than in carbs
  174. types of lipids
    • neutral fats (triglycerides)
    • phospholipids
    • steroids
    • eicosanoids
  175. saturated fatty acids
    • single bonds
    • solid
  176. unsaturated fattty acids
    • one or more double bonds
    • liquid
    • come from plants or fish
  177. phospholipds
    modified triglycerides with 2 fatty acid groups and 1 phosphate group

    chief component of cell membrane
  178. steroid
    • flat molecules w/ 4 interlocking hydrocarbon rings
    • closed molecules

    cholesterol, bile, vitamin D, sex hormones, adrenal cortical hormones
  179. Eicosanoids
    20-carbon fatty acids found in cell membranes

    prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxanes
  180. lipoproteins
    transport fatty acids and cholesterol in the bloodstream
  181. Amino Acids
    • -building blocks of proteins
    • -containing an amino group and a carboxyl group
    • carboxyl groups COOH
  182. polypeptide
    • peptide bond
    • a lot of amino acids together
  183. Proteins
    macromolecules composed of combo of 20 types of amino acid bound together with peptide bonds
  184. structural levels of proteins
    • primar --amino acid sequence
    • secondary --alpha helices or beta pleated sheets
    • tertiary -- superimosed folding of secondary structures (get together by hydrogen bonds)
    • quaternary- polypeptide chains linked together in a specific manner
  185. Fibrous proteins
    • extended and strand-like proteins
    • ex.- keratin, elastin, collagen, certain contractile fibers
  186. Globular proteins
    • compact, spherical proteins w/ tertiary and quaternary structures
    • ex.-antibodies, hormones & enzymes
  187. Protein denuaturation
    reversible unfolding of proteins due to drops in pH and/or increased temp

    irreversible denatured proteins cannot refold and are formed by extreme pH or temp change
  188. molecular Chaperones
    • help other proteins to achieve their functional 3D shape
    • maintain folding integrity
    • assist in translocation of protein across membranes
    • promote the breakdown of damaged or denatured prteins
    • makes sure other molecules & prteins are doing what they should
  189. characteristic of enzymes
    • chemically specific
    • most are globular proteins that act as biological catalysis
    • lower activation energy
  190. holoenzymes consists of
    an apoenzyme (protein) and a cofactor (usually an ion)
  191. mechanism of enzyme action
    • enzyme binds w/ substrate
    • product is formed at a lower activation energy
    • product is released
  192. glycoproteins
    • saccharides and proteins
    • make cell membranes fuzzy, sticky and sugar rich
  193. lipoproteins
    • lipids and proteins
    • maintain cell membrane and travel in blood
  194. protein receptrors
    proteins in the cell membrane to receive hormones or other chemical messengers
  195. Nucleic acids
    • poly nucleotides
    • composed of C, O, H, N, P
    • structural unit (nucleotide) composed of N-containing base, a pentose sugar, & phosphate group
  196. 5 nitrogen bases that contribute to nucleotide structure
    • 1) adenine (A), 
    • 2) guanine (g)
    • 3 cytosine (C)
    • 4)thymine (T)
    • 5) uracil    (U)
  197. 2 major classes of nucleic acid
    • DNA
    • RNA
  198. DNA
    Deoxyribonucleic Acid
    • genes are coding DNA
    • double stranded helical molecule found in nucleus of cell
    • uses nitrogenous base thymine (T) instead of uracil (U)
    • provides instructions for protein synthesis
    • the sugar is deoxyribose
  199. When does DNA replicate itself
    • before the cell divides 
    • --ensuring genetic continuity
  200. when all telomoeres are gone in DNA
    its time for apoptosis--cellular death
  201. RNA
    • single stranded
    • found in both nucleus and cytoplasm of cell
    • uses nitrogenous base U instead of T

    sugar is ribose
  202. N bases of RNA
    adenine bins uracil & cytosine binds guanine w/ hydrogen bonds
  203. 3 varieties of RNA
    • messenger (mRNA)
    • transfer (tRNA)
    • ribosomal (rRNA)
  204. what does rRNA do
    migrate to the nucleolus to form ribosomes that than go from nucleus to cytoplasm
  205. what does mRNA have
    had codons
  206. what does tRNA have
    anticodones that travel from nucleus to cytoplasm
  207. what generates proteins in the cytoplasm
    • ribosomes
    • mRNA
    • tRNA
    • amino acids w/ many enzymes
  208. ATP
    adenosine Triphosphate
    • source of immediatly usable energy for cell
    • adenosine: adenine & ribose
    • triphosphate 3 phosphate groups
    • Adenine- contains RNA nucleotide w/ 3 phosphate groups
Card Set
A&P I test 1