1.) How would you define risk?
- Risk is an expression of the probability and
- magnitude of an unwanted outcome. It occurs at
- many levels (e.g., loss of safety, not reaching
- business goals, and loss of operational
2.) How can you control risk?
- Risk is controlled by balancing the factors that
- increase risk with resources and strategies that
- decrease the potential for the undesirable outcome
- and/or increase the likelihood of a positive outcome.
3.) What are the four principles of RRM?
- Accept no unnecessary risk
- Anticipate and manage risk by planning
- Accept necessary risk only when benefits
- outweigh the cost
- Make risk decisions at the right level
4.) What are risk factors?
- Risk factors are anything that increase risk and
- decrease performance.
5.) What are the three categories of risk factors, as
stated in the RRM model?
- Task loading
- Additive conditions
- Crew factors
6.) Define task loading.
- Task loading is the perceived amount of time
- available to accomplish the required tasks. Crew
- Members should remain vigilant in recognition of task
- overloading. Crew Members should also avoid task
- under-loading, as long periods of low task loading can
- lead to inattention or complacency and increase risk.
7.) Define additive conditions.
- Additive conditions are any factor that adds to task loading or causes a distraction (e.g., the environment, equipment problems, operational problems, and organizational influences). Unpredictable situations or lack of information are additive conditions that can increase risk. Crew Members should beware of focused attention and/or tunnel vision from
- themselves and others.
8.) Describe the RRM Target.
- The target is an indicator of how much potential risk is
- being faced. The target is color coded into green,
- yellow, and red areas, where the rings further from
- the center represent increasing levels of risk. Crew
- Members should continually work towards operating
- in the green area.
9.) What does the green area represent?
- Good Situational Awareness
- Management Strategies
- Use of Resources
10.) What might help keep you in the green?
- Effective communication assists proactive
- management to anticipate problems, minimize errors,
- provide enhanced situational awareness and balance
- operational priorities.
11.) What does the yellow area represent?
- The yellow area of the RRM target represents
- increased risk due to higher task loading, additive conditions, and/or Crew factors.
12.) How might you sense you are operating in the yellow and what might we do to change that?
- When operating in the yellow, attention narrowing may increase the chance of errors going unnoticed.
- Also, situational awareness could be decreasing.
- Operating in the yellow area is an indication that it may be time to re-prioritize.
13.) What does the red area represent?
- The red area of the RRM target represents a high potential for a serious error or operational failure.
- Additionally, the time available and/or resources are not in place to capture errors.
14.) What is the hazard associated with operating in the
red and what might you do to mitigate it?
Operating in the red area means that there is a danger that situational awareness has severely diminished, and tunnel vision may occur. A recovery is necessary, and communication must become more directive.
15.) What are the RRM Resource Blocks?
- Policies, Procedures, and Flows
- Briefings and External Resources
- Knowledge, Skills, and Techniques
16.) What does ABCD stand for?
- ABCD stands for:
- Communicate risk and intentions, and
- Do and debrief
17.) What actions are you taking when you Assess a
While maintaining situational awareness, continuously evaluate what is happening now to identify, process, and comprehend the critical elements of information and determine how it affects the future outcome.
18.) What actions are you taking when you Balance a
- To attempt to balance a situation, make decisions based on policies, procedures, and the operational priorities (i.e., safety, service, and efficiently on time).
- This supports effective workload management and task redundancy.
19.) How do you Communicate risk and intentions?
You must communicate risk and intentions effectively, timely, constructively, and appropriately, to help establish a shared mental model.
20.) What does Do and Debrief accomplish?
- Do and Debrief promotes active involvement and constant self-evaluation.
- By debriefing and learning from the occurrences, Crew Members continuously work toward improving performance and reducing risk
21.) For Pilot Flying briefing purposes, where can you
find the minimum climb gradient?
This information may be included in the SID and/or Jeppesen -9A page.
22.) When is it required to land at the nearest suitable airport?
Landing at the nearest suitable airport is required when directed by a QRH checklist.
23.) If the aircraft has an engine failure and it is successfully restarted, are you still required to land at the nearest suitable airport?
Yes. Subsequently restarting the engine does not relieve this requirement for landing at the nearest suitable airport.
24.) Do you have to land at the nearest suitable airport if you had an APU fire that was extinguished?
Yes. Even though the QRH does not direct a landing at the nearest suitable airport if an APU fire is extinguished, FOM Chapter 5 specifies that a landing at the nearest suitable airfield IS required after an APU fire (extinguished or not)
25.) Are you required to have a 2000’ or greater stopping margin to conduct a takeoff from a runway intersection?
- Policy - An intersection takeoff may only be performed if the Flight Deck Crew determines that performance data is available and used for that intersection takeoff.
26.) As a Flight Crew, what are your responsibilities to execute or direct a go around/missed approach if the stabilized approach criteria are not met?
- It is the duty and responsibility of any Flight Deck Crew Member to execute or direct a go-around/ missed approach when the stabilized approach criteria are not met. Additionally, any time the approach or landing appears unsafe, execute or
- direct a go-around/missed approach. When a go around/ missed approach is called for, the Pilot Flying must immediately execute the go-around/missed approach.
27.) Where can the most current chart showing ACARS and Southwest Company Radio Network Frequencies be found?
The current data coverage chart is available on the SIP page via the hyperlink or on myMobile365 via the following path, My Publications > Collections > Operating/Reference Manuals > ARINC and Southwest Company Radio Network Charts and Frequencies.
28.) How do you know if an aircraft is not equipped to utilize CPDLC DCL?
Any aircraft not modified with CPDLC will have a “NO CPDLC” placard installed on the inside cover of the logbook binder.
29.) What are the advantages of using CPDLC DCL?
- Revised clearances can be sent to the aircraft prior to departure (unlike ACARS Pre-Departure Clearance [PDC]).
- Revised routings are transmitted to the aircraft and can be loaded, reducing Pilot input errors.
- Improved workflow for ATC and Pilots when last minute changes occur.
30.) How do you know if a particular city is participating in the CPDLC DCL program?
Participating CPDLC cities are identified by reference to the DATACOM information box of the airport SIP states “CPDLC.” Tap the CPDLC hyperlink to redirect to CPDLC DCL Reference Guide.
31.) After selecting the ATC LOGON/STATUS page and entering the KUSA code, how do you load the flight number into the MCDU?
The flight number needs to be preceded by “SWA” at LSK 2L (e.g., SWA1234, SWA123, SWA12). Do not use leading zeroes.
32.) What if the flight number field on the ATC LOGON / STATUS page has been prepopulated but without the SWA prefix?
If the flight number field is pre-populated without the SWA prefix, you will need to reenter the flight number including the SWA prefix.
33.) What needs to be done if you get a LOGON REJECTED at LSK 1R and RE-LOGON TO ATC COMM message in the scratch pad?
This indicates an incorrect ATC identifier, flight number, and/or tail number. Most logon errors can be corrected by verifying and re-entering the correct data into the ATC LOGON / STATUS 1/2 page.
34.) What does the ATC icon displayed on the DU indicate?
This symbol indicates a new message or clearance has not been acknowledged or answered. Do not depart with open CPDLC messages. Ensure the icon is cleared from the upper DU prior to takeoff
35.) When must 2 alternates be listed for dispatch?
- 1. Marginal weather at destination and alternate
- 2. Exemption 3585
- 3. Dispatch using NGRVR
36.) When a diversion plan is developed, how can we verify the fuel onboard is sufficient?
Refer to the Alternate Planning Tables in B737CL/NG AOM 18 In-Flight Performance Data or B737MAX AOM 18 In-Flight Performance Data to estimate the fuel burn from destination to the alternate airport. The values in the tables are not specific to the destination and alternate; therefore, the required fuel to alternate in the tables may differ slightly from the fuel computed by the Dispatcher.
37.) What is the specific flight profile used to determine the Fuel to Alternate numbers found in the Alternate Planning Tables?
The flight profile is based on a climb from 1,500 ft MSL to the altitude indicated, and then a descent back to sea level plus a 30 NM bias for fuel burn.
38.) What is a fuel burn planning number I can use to estimate the burn while holding?
- The NG is planned at 4,500 pph.
- The MAX8 is planned at 3,800 pph.
39.) What fuel burn rate does Dispatch use when computing contingency fuel?
- The NG is planned at 4,500 pph.
- The MAX8 is planned at 4,100 pph.
40.) How much fuel is required to meet the FAA reserve fuel requirements?
- These values should be adjusted for variables such as MEL/CDL items, ATC limitations, or any other known circumstance that will affect 45 minutes of flight at normal cruising fuel consumption.
- The NG reserve fuel requirement is 3,500 lbs. The MAX8 reserve fuel requirement is 3,100 lbs.
41.) With this shift in our fuel policies to the more representative metric of time, what other changes have been implemented to aid us in planning?
The SWIFT Computer system has been updated to include planned arrival fuel endurance time on the Dispatch Release. It is located next to the PLAN ARR FUEL in the fuel stack.
42.) When are you authorized to operate the TCAS in either TA/RA or TA Only modes?
Operations in the Traffic Advisory (TA )Only mode must be done only in accordance with guidance in the QRH, and as directed in the SIP pages.
43.) What is the AOM guidance if an engine fluid leak is discovered during an Exterior Preflight Inspection?
If a fluid leak (other than a continuous stream) from an engine drain is discovered during the Exterior Preflight Inspection, the engine may be started using normal procedures.
44.) What FMC programming needs to be done if you receive a runway change after completion of the Before Push checklist?
- If a runway change occurs, acquire PWB data, program the FMC, and verify the results.
- Select the TAKEOFF REF 1/2 page. Verify the runway and intersection (if applicable) displayed in the PWB data agree with the intersection (if applicable) and runway displayed at LSK 5L.
45.) When are you required to perform the Departure Plan Checklist?
The Departure Plan Checklist is designed to follow the Before Taxi Checklist. It is required if a change is made to the departure runway, a SID, or any other factor affecting takeoff performance is made after completion of the Before Push Checklist.
46.) What are the required conditions that allow cold soaked fuel frost (CSFF) on the upper wing surfaces?
- The CSFF is on or between the black lines defining the allowable CSFF area.
- Outside air temperature (OAT) is at or above 4°C (39°F).
- Fuel tank temperature is at or above -16°C (3°F).
- There is no precipitation or visible moisture (rain, snow, drizzle, or fog with less than 1 mile visibility).
- Note: Aircraft without depicted allowable CSFF areas are not allowed to take off with any frost on the upper wing surface.
47.) If conditions or ATC restrictions prevent flying at the planned altitude, (e.g., convective weather, poor ride quality) is encountered, what guidance is available to determine an alternative cruise altitude?
Reference the ALTITUDE/ROUTE OPTIONS section of the Dispatch Release for alternative altitude fuel requirement impacts. It may be beneficial to fly below the FMC optimum altitude if actual cruise winds facilitate a higher ground speed.
48.) If we encounter turbulence enroute, how can we determine an alternate cruise altitude that will ensure a 1.5 G buffet limit?
If greater than light turbulence, convective activity, or mountain wave activity is anticipated or encountered, select an altitude at least 3,000 ft (NG) or 3,300 ft (MAX) below the FMC MAX ALT and appropriate for the direction of flight. This guarantees 1.5 G buffet protection.
49.) Has our policy regarding the use of speedbrakes with the flaps extended changed?
Yes. The Extension of the speedbrakes to the FLIGHT DETENT position with up to and including flaps 10 is approved for use on both the NG and the MAX.
50.) Why are we seeing a different WiFi panel in some aircraft?
Southwest is implementing a multi-vendor In-Flight Entertainment and Connectivity (IFEC) solution by retrofitting a portion of the fleet with a new Panasonic WiFi system.