Lesson 2.1 Grape Taxonomy and Breeding

  1. grapes are from what genus?
  2. the genus vitis is sub-divided into several ...
    species (vinifera, labrusca, …)
  3. most of the genus vitis species are dioecious. What this mean?
    the flowers are either male or female
  4. T/F: almost (98%) grapes cultivated for consumption (wine or table grapes) are from vitis vinifera
  5. which are the two wild vitis vinifera found respectively in western Europe and middle east?
    • vitis vinifera sylvestris
    • vitis vinifera orientalis
  6. what is vitis labrusca?
    a northeastern US species of vitis
  7. what is the vitis labrusca used for grape juice and jelly?
  8. what are two cultivar of the labrusca vitis species that are used as wine cultivars in cold US climates?
    Niagra and Catawba
  9. what is the specific flavor associated with vitis labrusca?
  10. what is the component that gives the foxy taste to the labrusca vitis cultivar?
    methyl anthranilate
  11. vitis labrusca has a specific characteristic about the grape skin, which one?
    the berry skin slip easily and remains intact when the berry is squeezed
  12. T/F most grapes in the wild are dioecious
  13. the earliest cultivated vines were selected by hermaphrodism, why?
    they grew bigger, largest clusters with more berries (than dioecious vines)
  14. why hermaphrodite vines were most likely selected in antiquity?
    because flowers self-pollinate since they include both female and male parts (which results in larger clusters with more berries)
  15. T/F Riesling has characteristics very similar to the wild vitis species vitis sylvestris
  16. chardonnay is cross btw … and ...
    Gouais and Pinot Noir
  17. T/F the crossing btw CF and SB to make CS was most likely intentional
  18. what is one of the oldest cultivar in US?
    Scuppernog (Muscadine species)
  19. T/F Concord is an hybrid
  20. what is phylloxera?
    a root aphid
  21. give 2 examples of diseases that were brought back from US to Eu (aside phylloxera)
    • downy mildew
    • black rot
  22. phylloxera feeds on what parts of the roots?
    root tips and larger root pieces
  23. phylloxera feeds on the root tips causing ...
  24. what are the 2 main consequences of root tips feeding by phylloxera?
    the feeding stunt young shoot tips and open the root system to fungal diseases from the soil
  25. phylloxera feeds on larger root pieces causing ...
  26. phylloxera feeding on larger pieces of roots causes...
    death and decay of the root system and ultimately the collapse of the vine
  27. when the rootstock to graft to vinifera scions were developed?
    1870s-1880s- early 1900s
  28. T/F the rootstocks developed to solve the phylloxera problem were native American vines or hybrids of them
  29. the introduction of the roostock breeding to solve phylloxera was due to...
  30. the bacteria Xylella fastidiosa causes which disease?
    Pierce's disease
  31. what is the insect that primarily vector the Pierce's disease?
  32. what is the north American vine that has been used to breed PD resistant vines?
    vitis arizonica
  33. what are nematodes and what they do to the vines?
    microscopic worm-like pests that cause damage to grape roots by feeding on them
  34. why nematodes are difficult to control?
    because the food source is always there, there aren't chemical/cultural method that can remove/control them
  35. what could be a valid solution to deal with nematodes?
    root resistance
  36. what are GRN rootstocks?
    rootstocks breeded from hybrids to combat nematodes
Card Set
Lesson 2.1 Grape Taxonomy and Breeding
Grape Taxonomy and Breeding