viticulture Lesson 1.1

  1. plant cells are different than animal cells because they contain 2 elements not present in animal cell... which ones?
    chloroplasts and cell wall (made of cellulose)
  2. what is the name of the cells that make the plant grow wider, longer?
  3. the bud is a meristems or not?
    YES it is
  4. growing tips, buds and fruit can be considered as
  5. apical meristems are responsible for increasing the ...
    length of the plant (length of shoots, bud, roots)
  6. in the (compound) bud there are usually how many single buds? what are the names?

    • 1. primary bud
    • 2. secondary smaller dormant bud (or tertiary)
    • 3. secondary largest dormant bud
  7. the shoot usually comes from which of the three buds? how the other two buds are defined?
    the primary bud

    secondary and tertiary buds are dormant
  8. if the primary bud is killed what can grow to replace the primary bud?
    one of the two secondary buds
  9. a secondary bud that grows replacing a killed primary bud is usually more or less fruitful than the primary bud? Does it always produce fruit?
    • less fruitful
    • no, sometimes it does not produce any fruit
  10. Lateral  meristem occurs in … and it is responsible for ...
    trunk, stems, roots

    thickening of branches, shoots, trunks, roots
  11. name an example of important lateral meristem
    vascular cambium
  12. the vascular cambium is the source of two important elements of the vascular system, which ones?

  13. the plant vascular system is composed of two elements
    xylem and phloem
  14. what is the principal water-conducting tissue of plants? what other elements are conducted through this tissue?
    • xylem
    • minerals
  15. what is the principal food-conducting tissue in plants?
  16. the xylem is the … part of the plant
  17. where the phloem is located within the plant?
    extreme outer part of the root/stem just inside the bark
  18. through what part of the vascular system, energy, food, photosynthate move to the meristems in the vine?
  19. chloroplasts contain ...
  20. chlorophyll is important because it conducts the process of ...
  21. over the year many roots are generated... are all kept for next year?
    no (some are removed, some are retained)
  22. what parts of the vine are used as storage for carbohydrates?
    roots, trunk, cordons (permanent wood)
  23. a cane before to be a cane it is a ...
    green shoot
  24. when a shoot becomes a cane? what transformations happen to the shoot?
    after all the leaves fall off, the shoot lignified, becomes brown, woody
  25. what is a node?
    a thickened part of the shoot/cane where there is a compound bud
  26. at the beginning of spring the shoot is an importer or exporter of energy?
    importer (it uses more energy than what it is produced by photosynthesis) but it later becomes an exporter, producing more energy that it consumes
  27. at each node/bud on the shoot there is a...
  28. on the shoot, what there is opposite the leaf (3)?
    a cluster, a tendril or nothing
  29. usually (often) what do you see opposite the basal leaf/node (the leaf/node closest to the base of the shoot)?
  30. after the basal leaf/node what do you see in the next two nodes? and after that?
    two clusters then a skip (a node with leaf but nothing opposite the leaf)
  31. after the two clusters and the node with the skip what do you have in the next two positions? and then?
    • 2 tendrils
    •  a skip one (nothing opposite the leaf)
  32. every bud/node has a leaf?
  33. the clusters are modified ...
  34. list the pattern on a shoot
    • nothing (basal node)
    • cluster
    • cluster
    • nothing
    • tendril
    • tendril
    • nothing
    • tendril
    • tendril
  35. the lateral shoot (or summer lateral) is always or seldom fertile?
  36. when the lateral shoot is fertile the crop that it bears is called...
    second crop
  37. vines having a second crop (lateral/summer shoot) is an indication of what?
    the vine is out of balance, it's too vigorous (or it's not carrying enough fruit)
  38. depending on the cultivar, each compound bud will produce how many leaves and how many inflorescences/clusters?
    • 6-10 leaves
    • up to 3 inflorescences/clusters
  39. what happens to the summer lateral shoots during winter?
    they will fall off leaving a scar
  40. what is the name of the thing that attaches the leave to the shoot?
  41. what is the basic function of the leaves?
    to provide surface area for photosynthesis
  42. leaf area represents … area and … area
    photosynthetic area and transpirational area
  43. leaf area is a measure of the photosynthetic … of a vine
  44. leaves allow gas exchange for … and ...
    photosynthesis and transpiration
  45. what is the name of the cells in the bottom of the leaf that allow/regulate gas exchange?
  46. by opening and closing, stomatas allow movement of ...
    O2, CO2, water vapor
  47. to conduct photosynthesis, plants needs (besides sunlight and water) also ...
  48. in order for CO2 to enter the cells in the leaf what is needed?
    CO2 must go into solution, so must be in contact with a moist surface
  49. the transpiration of the vine from the leaves happens through the ...
  50. in the light stomata are normally open or closed?
  51. how can the vine regulate the use of water through the stomatas?
    by opening and closing the guard cells of the stomata
  52. if the vine is low in water the stomatas will partially...
  53. besides water levels, what other factors affect the transpiration (how much water is transpired)? (4)
    • 1.light intensity
    • 2.air temperature
    • 3.humidity
    • 4.wind speed
  54. water loss is primarily used for two purposes: which ones?
    • 1. aid photosynthesis (moisture necessary for the CO2 to be into solution and enter the cells)
    • 2.avoid overheating (cooling by evaporation)
  55. the greatest use of water by far is to provide the energy sink for...
    cooling by evaporation
  56. vines avoid overheating by using heat (that would generate high temperatures) to...
    evaporate water from inside the leaves
  57. in a cluster, the first branch is called...
  58. sometimes the wings are ...
    removed from the cluster
  59. what are 'jacks'? and what happen to them during crushing?
    the jacks are the small branches attached to the rachis that holds the berries through the pedicles
  60. what color are the jacks and what you should do with them?

    they should be removed (contribute to green flavors)
  61. T/F  there are conflicting data about the rate growth of trunk and roots
  62. when the growth rate of the shoots is greatest and when declines?
    greatest just after budbreak but continues to decline after approx. 20 days
  63. how many days pass until the rate growth of shoots almost stops?
  64. the growth rate of shoots almost stops in correspondence of ...
    veraison (but this is not always the case)
  65. what is our goal in terms of growth rate of shoots and veraison?
    shoot should stop grow at veraison
  66. berry growth starts at about how many days after budbreak?
    approx. 55 days
  67. after how many days after budbreak the berry growth reaches its peak?
    80 days after bb
  68. describe the curve that represents the berry growth rate
    2 peaks (80 and 120 days) and 2 stops (95?, 175?)
  69. veraison happens at approx how many days after budbreak?
    110 days
  70. how many phases can you distinguish when looking at the berry growth rate?
    • 3 phases:
    • 1. phase 1
    • 2. phase 2 or lag phase with no growth (at veraison?)
    • 3. phase 3 (from veraison to just before harvest)
  71. when phase 1 for berry growth rate takes place?
    after berry set which is 55 days after budbreak
  72. when phase 2 or lag phase for berry growth rate takes place?
    just before veraison (no growth)
  73. when phase 3 of berry growth rate takes place?
    between veraison until shortly before harvest
  74. phenological stages for the vine are...
    growth stages of the vine
  75. veraison can be defined as the transition in berry growth rate from … to ...
    from stage 2 (lag phase) to phase 3
  76. veraison is generally considered the beginning or onset of ...
    berry ripening
  77. veraison results in several physiological changes that occur very rapidly. Within how many hours?
    24 to 48 hours
  78. list the changes that occur in berry during veraison (6)
    • 1. softening
    • 2. decrease in malate
    • 3. increase of pH
    • 4. sugars begin to accumulate
    • 5. anthocyan synthesis (colored varieties)
    • 6. increase of dry weight
  79. the term veraison can be used to refer to the resumption of growth, which means the beginning of which phase?
    phase 3
  80. what is shoot tipping?
    remove the tips of the shoots at flowering
  81. why shoot tipping should be performed?
    increase the set of flowers into berries
  82. besides hormones, what is also very important for the berry set (flower set into berries)?
  83. T/F there are competitive effects btw shoots and clusters
  84. T/F varietal and clonal factors affect berry set
  85. what variety is notorious for having a year-to-year too extreme variation in crop (hard time setting)?
  86. what helped Californian Malbec to improve berry setting?
    • 1. shoot tipping
    • 2. new clones from France
  87. after budbreak the main and only leaf area is the …. leaf area
  88. T/F when the summer lateral develop the leaves produced by summer lateral shoots contribute significantly to the total lead area
  89. the amount of lateral leaf area (lateral shoot growth) is dependent on two factors: ...
    • 1. variety
    • 2. balance of the vine (vegetative vs reproductive)
  90. what is the goal in terms of summer lateral (lateral shoot growth) vs balance of the vine?
    not too many laterals or not too-developed laterals
  91. after veraison what happens to the big canes?
    harden, lignify, become brown
Card Set
viticulture Lesson 1.1
first wk lesson