The Heart

  1. Where does the right atrium receive deoxygenated blood from?
    • Superior/inferior vena cava
    • Coronary sinus
  2. Where does the left atrium receive oxygenated blood from?
    • Four pulmonary veins:
    • 2 right pulmonary veins
    • 2 left pulmonary veins
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    • Crista terminalis
    • Smooth band
    • "terminal" portion with the ridges ending
    • Only found in right atrium
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    • Pectinate Muscle
    • Roughened ridge of muscle
    • Found in both atria
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    • Fossa ovalis
    • Remnant of a foramen, closed to turn into a "fossil"
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    • Tricuspid valve of the right ventricle
    • 3 groups of papillary m. associated
    • Large opening between right atrium to the ventricle
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    • Chordae Tendineae
    • "Heart strings" that attach to the papillary m.
    • Pulls on the valve to open and close
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    • Pulmonary Trunk
    • Sits in front of the aorta
    • Sign that you are looking at the front
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    • Pulmonary Semilunar Valve of right ventricle
    • Drains into pulmonary trunk and sends blood into the lungs
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    • Trabeculae Carneae
    • Roughened muscle
    • Found in the ventricles
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    • Moderator Band
    • Part of nervous system
    • Long thin band
    • Helps innervate the heart
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    • Papillary muscle
    • Rounded bumps and comes off of the trabeculae carneae
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    • Aorta
    • Leaves the left ventricle to send oxygenated blood to systemic circulation
    • Biggest artery
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    Aortic Semilunar Valve of the left ventricle
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    • Bicuspid (mitral) Valve
    • Only 2 sets of papillary muscles
    • On the left ventricle
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  18. 3 Layers of the Heart
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    • Superior Vena Cava
    • Formed by the joining of the left and right brachiocephalic veins
    • Returns blood from thoracic wall, upper limb, head and neck
    • Goes into the right atrium
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    • Inferior Vena Cava
    • Formed by joining the left and right common iliac veins
    • Returns blood from the abdomen, pelvis, and lower limb
    • Drains into the right atrium
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    • Pulmonary trunk leaves the right ventricle and bifurcates into the left and right pulmonary arteries
    • Goes to the lungs
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    Pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium
  23. Atrioventricular Valves
    • Prevent backflow into atria
    • Tricuspid Valve: between right atrium and right ventricle
    • Bicuspid Valve: between left atrium and left ventricle
  24. What is a heart murmur
    When blood flows backwards through valves
  25. Semilunar Valves
    • Prevent backflow into ventricles
    • Aortic Semilunar Valve: between left ventricle and aorta
    • Pulmonary Semilunar Valve: between right ventricle and pulmonary trunk
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  26. Heart Beat
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  27. When is there maximum blood flow for the myocardium (muscle of the heart)?
    When the heart is relaxed (diastole)
  28. Why is there little blood through the coronary circulation when the heart is contracting (systole)
    • Compression of coronary arteries due to contraction of myocardium
    • Entrances into the coronary circulation are partially blocked by the cusps of the aortic semilunar valve
  29. How can the cardiac muscle of the heart able to contract without impulses from the nervous system?
    Contractions set by pacemaker cells is altered by the sympathetic (acccelerates) and parasympathetic (decelerates) divisions of the autonomic nervous system
  30. What does the fetus need the mother's circulation to compensate for?
    • Fetus...
    • has non-functioning lungs
    • Can't provide it's own nutrients
    • Can't remove its own waste
  31. Placenta
    • Develops in the uterus alongside the fetus
    • Maternal and fetal blood communicate within the placenta
    • Allows for delivery of nutrients and removal of waste for the fetus
    • Communication occurs via umbilical vessels
  32. Umbilical Cord
    • Brings nutrient and O2 rich blood to the fetal heart
    • Includes the umbilical vein and umbilical arteries
    • Arteries bring deoxygenated blood out of the fetus to the placenta
  33. What does the closure of the umbilical vein form?
    • Ligamentum teres (round ligament of the liver) in the adult
    • Found within the inferior edge of the Falciform ligament
Card Set
The Heart