Main Themes of Microbiology

  1. Discribe what a Bacterial Colony is
    Piles of individual cells, that originated from One Parental Cell, that has divided repeatedly resulting in a large accumulation of cells that are visible without maginification.
  2. Discribe what a Bacterial Cell is
    Individual cells that make up a colony that need to be viewed with the aid of a microscope.
  3. What is the study of Microbiology
    Biology that deals with Living Organisms Too Small to be seen without Magnification
  4. What are Organismes too small to be seen without magnification called
    Microorganisms or Microbes (Not Germs)
  5. What are the Major Biological Groups studied in Microbiology
    Bacteria, Fungi, Protista and Virus
  6. Describe Bacteria
    • Primitive Prokaryotic Cell,
    • Three basic shapes: Bacillus, Coccus and Spiral
    • Reproduce asexually via binary fission
    • Can form pairs, chains, clusters or other groupings
  7. Describe Fungi
    • Eukaryotic organisms,
    • may be unicellular or mulitcellular, mushroom, yeasts and molds
  8. Describe Protista
    • Eukaryotic organisms,
    • unicellular and multicellular Protozoa are motile and are typically heterotrophs
    • they reproduce asexually and sexually
  9. Describe Virus
    • Viruses are not “alive” Lack cell membrane
    • Cannot reproduce without a host
    • Do not metabolize energy
    • Generally smaller than 200nm in diameter
    • All viruses are obligate intracellular parasites
  10. Describe a Prokaryotic cell
    • Primitive Cell
    • Smallest in size
    • Produces DNA
    • has Plasma Membrane
    • has Ribosoms
    • have no Nucleus or membrane bound compartments called Organells
    • Bacteria are composed of Prokaryotic cells
  11. Describe Eukaryotic Cells
    • Larger in size
    • Produces DNA
    • has Ribosomes
    • has a Nucleus and menbrane bound Organells
    • Microbs include Fungi and Protoza, Organisms include Plants and Animals
  12. Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells are Similar is what way
    • They both contain
    • DNA
    • Ribosomes
    • Plasma Membrane
  13. What are the parts of a Virus
    • Each type has at least two parts Nucleic acid core: DNA or RNA Capsid,
    • An Outer layer composed of Protein subunits Some enveloped by membrane Others “naked”

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  14. Why are Viruses considered Intercellular Parasites
    Because they are Not Cells, and they can Only reproduce Only when it is Inside a Living Host
  15. What Nucleic Acids are possible in Viruses
    DNA or RNA, Single Strand or Double Strand
  16. Microorganisms are measured in what units
    Metric Units
  17. One Tenth of a Meter 1/10 =
    • Decimeter, dm
    • Can be seen with the Naked Eye
  18. One Hundrdth of a Meter 1/100 =
    • Centimeter, cm
    • Can be seen with the Naked Eye
  19. One Thousandth of a Meter 1/1000 =
    • Millimeter, mm.
    • Can be seen with the Naked Eye
  20. One Millionth of a Meter 1/1,000,000 =
    • Micrometer, um.
    • Can be seen with a Light Microscope
  21. One Billionth of a Meter 1/1,000,000,000 =
    • Nanometer, nm.
    • Can be seen with a Electron Microscope
  22. Ten Billionth of a Meter 1/10,000,000,000 =
    • Angstrom, A (it has a small dot top of the A)
    • Can be seen with an Atomic Force Microscope
  23. What are the Levels of Classification
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
  24. What is Binomial Nomenclature
    A system for referring to organisms by a Genus and Species name
  25. Whats the value in using Binomial Nomenclature
    It is Internationally recognized
  26. Characteristics of Binomial Nomenclature
    • The First name is the Genus name (Generic Name) of the Organism, it First letter is Capitalized and Underlined
    • Second Letter the Species name, underlined but not capitalized. eg Homo sapiens
  27. What was Anto van Leeuwenhoek famus for
    • First to See and Describe Bacteria.
    • Considered to be the First microbiologist.
    • Grinded lenes to 300-500x
    • Recorded all his findings
    • Called them Animalcules
    • Sent his drawings to Royal Society of Lundon
  28. Who was Edward Jenner
    Made the First Smallpox Vaccination from cowpox
  29. Who was Ignaz Semmelweis
    • Father of Handwashing
    • Pioneer of Aseptic Policy
    • Decreased Childbed Fever or Puerperal Sepsis in Hospitals
    • But Findings were not excepted
  30. What is another Name for Spontaneous Generation and what is the deffinition
    • Abiogenesis
    • The believed ability that Living organisms may be generated from non-living things
  31. Who was John Snow
    • The Father of Epidemiology
    • Contributed to the Koch theory
    • Proved that the Cholera Outbreak came from Contaminated Water
    • Developed Basic Laboratory Techniques for microbiology as the Pure Culture Technique
    • Used Petri Plates and solid medium to grow Microorganisms
    • Developed the Gram Stain and other Staining procedures
  32. Who was Paul Ehrlich
    • Worked with Koch
    • Uncovered that some molecules of a dye bound to some microorganism but not to others
    • Developed a cure for Syphilis
    • Identified selective killing
    • Fother of Chemotherapy
  33. Who was Robert Hooke
    • First person to report seeing Microorganisms
    • Published a Book called Micrographia
    • He was able to see Cellular structures of Plants and Fungi
    • He failed to see Bacteria
  34. Who was Robert Koch
    • Studied Anthrak (Bacillus anthracis) proof that a cattle disease (anthrax) was caused by a particular bacterium
    • Established the Germ Theory of Disease (Microorganisms can cause Disease)
    • 1st. A microbe has to be found in every case of the disease
    • 2nd. The microbe must be isolated and grown in pure culture
    • 3rd. When the cultured microbe is inoculated into another animal it must cause the same dieease
    • 4th. The same microbe must be re-isolated from the inoculated animal
  35. Virus Classification is based on
    • Type of nucleic acid (RNA or DNA)
    • Size and shape
    • Presence / absence of outer envelope
  36. What is Biogenesis
    living cells can only arise only from other living cells
  37. Louis Pasture
    • In 1861 Pasteur conclusively disproved spontaneous generation using specially designed flasks with a
    • long S-shaped neck.
  38. One of the Biggest Achevments was the development of
    The Electron Microsocpe which allowed scientes to see Viruses and Very Small Bacteria
Card Set
Main Themes of Microbiology