Pharm: Exam 3

  1. Name 2 anti-gout medications

    How should they be given 
    What should they not be taken with
    Colchicine, and Allopurinol 

    Take at the 1st sign of an attack, and the 2nd dose 1 hr after 

    take with food not grapefruit or purines
  2. What should Colchicine not be taken with

    adverse effects to notify
    Cyclosporine/ ranolazine 

    anticoagulants and aspirin work more 

    notify if urine output is less or cloudy
  3. Name an anti-inflammatory salicylate 

    how to give it? 

    who not to give it to?
    acetylsalicylic acid 

    Take it with food

    Dont give it to those under 18 or pregnant = reyes syndrome
  4. Sign of salicylism toxicity
    serum level over 300 

    - dizzy, tinnitus, hearing loss

    other adverse effects: GI blood loss, hemmorrhage, petechia, bruising
  5. What lowers and raises the effects of acetylsalicylic acid
    • lowers:
    • sodium bicarb ( antidote) 
    • ibuprofen
    • misoprostol

    • raises:
    • acids ( ex. vit c ) 
    • angiotensinb
    • betaadrenergics
    • corticosteroids
  6. Name a nonnarcotic analgesic antipyretic 

    whats the max dose?

    contraindication
    acetaminophen 

    max dose: 4g, if too high= MI

    contraindication: liver, hypersensitivity ( rash)
  7. If someone takes too much acetaminophen what are the signs, and what can be done?
    early: vomit

    24-48 hr: symptoms go down, liver prob go up

    3-4 days: hepatotoxicity 

    antedote : acetylcysteine within 8-10 hrs
  8. Name a propionic nonsteroidal anti inflammatory

    how to take it 
    when not to take it
    Ibuprofen for mild-mod pain/fever 

    Must be at least 6 months old, and should be taken with food 

    • Not for periop or coronary artery bypass
    • report bleeding 

    and dont take with alcohol or ginger
  9. Name a oxicam nonsteroid anti inflammatory 

    and the risks , what not to take with it
    Meloxicam inhibits inflammation 

    risks for CVD, GI bleed 

    Dont take it with lithium
  10. Name a nonsteroidal anti inflammatory acetic acid 

    risks
    • Indomethacin 
    • Etodolac
    • Ketorolac ( limit to 5 days)

    - for RA, OA , tend pain 

    Risk for clotting and MI
  11. Name a nonsteroid anti-inflammatory Cox-2 inhibitor 
    how to take it and what are the risks
    • celecoxib: decrease inflammation and protects the GI 
    • - arthritis 

    take with food

    MI risks increases
  12. What do glucocorticoids ( exogenous) end with  

    what to be aware of while taking (5 points)
    • - Predinose 
    • - sone ( betamethaosne, dexamethasone, fluticasone ...etc) 

    • - Lowers immune system 
    • -Tape off ( dont miss a dose) if you stop abruptly = addisons 
    • - No live viruses 
    • - weight frequently 
    • - raise dose with stress 
    • -Give bronchodilators first
  13. Name a mineralocorticoid
    Aldosterone 

    • reabsorbs water and salt 
    • gets rid of K+
  14. What do Penicillins end with 

    How to give 

    What not to give with
    Ampicillin ( -cillin) 

    • Broad spectrum 
    • Give 1hr ac or 2 hr pc ( empty stomach no acid) 

    IV ( dilute over 30-60 min : causes cardiac arrest) or IM no deltoid 

    common prob = rash 

    Dont give with cephalosporins
  15. How to remember cephalosporins 

    How to give 

    What not to give with 

    interactions
    - Start with - Cef 

    - Broad spectrum , gen 5 can cause MRSA 

    If allergic to -cillins dont give cephs 

    • - causes prothrombin time to go down 
    • -renal fail with: aminoglycoside, furosemid, vancomycin
  16. How to remember Carbapenems 

    how to give 

    who not to give it to
    Imipeneme-celastatin ( end in -nem) 

    • Broad spectrum for drug resistance 
    • IV rapid onset, IM with lidocaine 

    Dont give to kids under 8 or those with seizures 

    dont give if allergic to - cillins or - cephs
  17. What to monobactams end with 
    what are they used for 
    adverse effects
    gram - 

    - aztreonam 

    cause liver toxicity, and prolonged c diff
  18. Name a aminoglycoside 

    how to give 

    cautions
    Gentamicin: bacteriostatic for gram (-) Ecoli, sepsis 

    IM/IV/ Opthalmic gtt - 10 min apart NOT PO

    based on drug levels, crCL

    covers ototoxicity if taken with antihistamines or ginger 

    penicillin decreases the effects
  19. Fluoroquinolones end with 

    how to give 

    precautions 

    who not to give it to
    Ciprofloxacin ( end in -oxacin) 

    • Admin IVPB over 60 minutes 
    • PO with food ( for anthrax of bone/joints) 

    • Dont give to kids = erodes joints 
    • Dont give to myasthenia gravis 

    • Wait 4 hr before antacids/vitamins 
    • No dairy , stay hydrated 

    = tendonitis, tendon rupture , photosensitive
  20. What do tetracyclines end with 

    How to give / what to avoid 

    Who not to give
    End in - cycline 

    PO: empty stomach : acne, hpylori, std, lyme 

    No dairy, antacids, iron, photosensitive 

    lowers the effects of bc 

    dont give to pregnant or kids under 8 = bad teeth
  21. Sulfonamides end with 

    How to take 

    What to be aware of
    • Trimethoprim-sulfamethazole 
    • ( end in -azine) 

    Take with water, or topically for burns 

    causes BC to work less, photosensitive, hypoglycemia, steven johnson sydrome, hematuria
  22. What is nitrofurantoin for
    to treat UTI take with food
  23. What is phenozopyridine hydrochloride for
    • to help UTI pain
    • pee=orange
  24. What is trimethoprim

    what to give it with
    for UTI

    take with sulfamethaxazole

    drink 2000-3000 ml of water
  25. What meds not to give to pregnant people ( think MCAT)
    • Metronidazole ( 1st for cdiff)
    • Chloramphenicol
    • Aminoglycoside 
    • Tetracycline
  26. What do macrolides end with 

    when are they used 

    How to give
    Erythromycin end in -mycin 

    • For penicillin allergy
    • Dental procedure with heart valve 
    • STD
    • Newborns born with chlamydia conjunctivitis 

    PO, ophthalmic ointment, IV around the clock , 2 hrs before meals
  27. What do macrolides interact with and the side effects
    • no grapefruit juice
    • no antacids ex. aluminum magnesium 

    If IV admin check for vfib/ hearing loss
  28. Name a  lincosamides

    adverse problems
    Clindamycin 

    bacteriostatic 

    Ordered with aminoglycoside/fluquindones

    can lead to cdiff, colitis, diarrhea
  29. Name an oxazolidinone 

    what not to give it with
    Lineozolid ( bacteriostatic and cidal)

    for pneumonia and vancomycin resistance

    dont give it with antidepressents, or tyramine rich foods 

    check cbc , myelosuppresion
  30. Name a nitromidazole 

    What does it treat 

    adverse rxn
    metronidazole 

    treats c diff , hpylori 


    • adverse: taste metal
    • not for pregnant
  31. Name a glycopeptide

    what does it treat 

    what to be aware of
    vancomycin 

    treats MRSA, endocarditis , colitis, cdiff 

    If IVPB is infused too rapid = red man syndrome ( flush, hypotension, rash)

    Give 1g=1hr
  32. Drugs for TB 

    how to take 

    what to be aware of
    • latent= isoniazid ( need B6) 
    • active= isoniazid, and rifampin ( orange, bc works less) 

    • take on an empty stomach
    • warfarin works more, neuropathy
  33. Herpes antiviral drug endings 

    how to give 
    who not to give
    otc drug
    • Acyclovir ( ends in -clovir) 
    • OTC: docosanol ( cold sore) 

    topical: need gloves, oral: need food IV: 1hr+

    dont give to heart fail, renal, lactation
  34. Cytomegalovirus antivirals ( type of herpes)

    how to give , when not to give
    • ganciclovir 
    • valganciclovir ( for org transplant) 

    • PO: prevent CMV in hiv/ immunocomp
    • IV: CMV retinitis ( infuse 1hr+)  

    • Dont get pregnant ( be on bc 90 post )
    • Dont eat salt , eat high fat diet 

    • Dont give if platelets <25000
    • neutrophils <500 

    black box: neutropenia, anemia, thrombocypenia
  35. Antiviral RSV drug

    when not to give
    • Ribavirin
    • - dont mix with other inhaled rx 
    • -dont get pregnant
  36. 4 Flu antivirals 

    how to give 
    when to give
    • Amantadine hydrochloride 
    • rimantadine
    • oseltamivir phosphate 
    • zanamirvir 

    • BID q12hr with food and water
    • no alcohol, 
    • start 48hrs of symptoms
  37. Polyenes for fungal infection 
    how long to give 
    what to avoid
    • Amphotericin B: serious infection only 4-12wk
    • Nystatin : 1L bolus 

    no lactation, causes hypokalemia, hyponatremia
  38. Name a fungal azole 
    how to give
    Fluconazole  ( end in -azole) 

    PO, IV ( dont mix with other rx) 

    1st line local candida, lots of interactions
  39. Name a fungal echinocandins 

    how to give 

    what not to give it with
    Caspofungin 

    • IV only for azole resistant, 
    • bad with aspergillus 

    Dont give with mannitol
  40. 2 rx for fungacide against dematophyles 

    what its used for 
    how to give
    • Griseofulvin
    • Terbinafine

    ring worm, jock itch, athletes foot 

    topical/ PO ( may need only 1 dose)

    bc works less
  41. Name a amebicide 

    whats it for 

    adverse effects
    For amoebas, trich, c diff 

    - metroniadazole - cylcines too 

    • with food not alcohol
    • causes metallic taste 
    • bleeding goes up, and dark pee
  42. Name 2 antimalarial how to take
    • Chloroquine phosphate 
    • Hydroxychlorquine 

    • same day each week with food 
    • 1week before, during ,and 4 wks after travel
  43. Name a anthelmintic 

    whats it used for 

    nursing job
    Mebendazole 

    round work, pinworm, hookworm 

    PO chew/ crush with food 

    collect stool for ova 3 weeks after
  44. Pediculicide rx 

    what its used for 

    how to give
    Permethrin 

    PO/topical 1 dose total 

    scabies/lice: cream head to toe, 8 hrs then wash
  45. Name a nasal decongestant 
    what not to use it with
    • Pseudoephedrine ( vasoconstricts)
    • for rhinitis 

    extended released 12+ 

    dont use hypertension, antidepression, hyperthyroid
  46. Antitussive 

    meds
    • Non narcotic... 
    • Dextromethorphan for non productive cough 
    • -cough drop form
    • Benzonatate 

    Narcotic : codeine
  47. Name an expectorant , how it works
    Guaifensin 

    • thins secretions making more but easier to remove
    • - suction
  48. Mucolytic 

    how to give
    Acetylcystein : inhale and liquify mucus 

    for tylenol overdose
  49. 2 Antihistamins how they work
    • Dipenhydramine 
    • - = drowsy, crosses blood brain

    • Fexofenadine
    • for allergies and rash , good for asthma  non drowsy
  50. Type 3 : serum sickness
    7-10 days of excess antigen 

    type 4: epinephrine
  51. Name an adrenergic bronchodilatior 

    how to use 

    when to use
    • Albuterol to treat bronchospasm
    • metered dose inhaler 5-15 min 
    • Always 1st before other inhalers, 1st for status asthmaticus 

    • - doesnt work for bronchospasm
    • -dont take with beta blockers 

    Salmeterol : not fast enough alone
  52. Name an anticholinergic how to use
    Ipratropium

    Inhale but not for rescue its just main

    cons: glaucoma, BPH
  53. Name an xanthine
    theophylline

    PO AC dont crush/ chew 

    blood levels 5-15 >20=toxic 

    no caffeine , macrolide, lithium
  54. Name a corticosteroid for asthma
    • Beclomethasone 
    • not rescue just preventative

    • Inhale PO/IV for acute 
    • intranasal- rhinitis 

    <3 years growth restriction, bone marrow down
  55. Leukotriene modifier for asthma
    Montelukast 

    • PO hs , excercise induced 
    • long term, neuropsych
Author
skuper4
ID
340998
Card Set
Pharm: Exam 3
Description
ch 15-25, 31-33
Updated