Primary bladder calculi?
- These stones develop in the absence of any known functional,anatomic, or infectious factors.
- Most common in children younger than the age of 10, with a peak incidence at 2 to 4 years of age.
- Stones are usually solitary and, once removed,rarely recur.
- Low dietary intake of phosphate not only leads to hypophosphaturia but also to hyperammonuria, promoting the precipitation of both calcium oxalate and ammonium acid urate
What are secondary bladder calculi?
Typically found in men older than the age of 60 and usually in concert with lower urinary tract obstruction.
Nomenclature of various procedures?*
- Cystolitholapaxy - Intact removal of stone
- Cystolithotrity - Mechanical crushing of stone
- Cystolithotripsy - Breakage of stone with energy source
- Cystolithotomy - Open removal of stone
Maurmyers stone punch?*
- It is complete with its own sheath, working element and inserting obturator (with bridge). Hence, it becomes costly.
- Requires zero degree telescope.