Kidney Stones

  1. S&S, who is affected and diagnosis of kidney stones:
    • Usually asymptomatic until stone passes through the ureters which triggers excruciating pain originating in the flank or kidney, nausea, vomiting, abdominal distension, chills, fever
    • Men over 30y/o
    • Diagnosed adventitiously or from acute symptoms
  2. Causes of kidney stones:
    • Gene mutations can lead to excess urinary excretion of calcium, uric acid, oxalate and cysteine.
    • Usually composed of calcium (Ca) salts (75% to 85%), uric acid (5% to 8%), or struvite (10% to 15%)
    • Due to combination of an abundance of substances that promote stone formation, a relative lack of substances to inhibit crystal formation and dehydration.
  3. Main overall support plan for kidney stones:
    • Increase dietary fibre
    • Minimize refined CHO
    • Reduce NcCI
    • Reduce animal protein
    • Increase water intake to 2L
    • Weight management if required
  4. 4 main types of kidney stones
    • Calcium containing stones 
    • Uric Acid stones
    • Magnesium Ammonium Phosphate (MAP) Stones
    • Cysteine Stones
  5. Describe composition of calcium containing stones, reasons for their development and tailored nutritional interventions:
    • Ca oxalate, Ca oxalate with Ca phosphate or Ca phosphate alone.
    • Occur more in affluent society and linked to low fiber and high refined CHO diet, alcohol, animal protein, fat, high-Ca food, fructose, high salt which increases urinary output of Ca, lack of water, Prolonged antibiotic use
    • Eliminate aluminum sources such as antacids
    • Reduce oxalate intake (spinach, parsley, leeks)
    • B6, Vitamin K, Mg
  6. Describe Uric acid stones and tailored nutritional interventions:
    • Normally due to a disposition to gout and high purine diet.
    • Low purine diet 
    • Increase fluids, fruits and vegetables
    • High dose folic acid to improve uric acid metabolism
    • Vit C and blackcurrant juice
  7. Describe Magnesium Ammounium Phosphate stones and tailored nutritional interventions:
    • Normally due to infection
    • Eradicate/manage infection
  8. Describe Cysteine Stones and tailored nutritional interventions:
    Reduce methionine rich foods
Card Set
Kidney Stones
Kidney Stones