Bones of the Axial Skeleton

  1. Functions of the Vertebral Column
    • Protection
    • Strong, but flexible support for the trunk
    • Posture and support of body weight
  2. Structure of Vertebral Column
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    • Consists of 33 vertebrae:
    • 7 cervical
    • 12 thoracic
    • 5 lumbar
    • 5 sacral (fused)
    • 4 coccygeal (fused)
  3. 4 curvatures of the spine
    • Primary Curvatures:
    • -Thoracic
    • -Sacral
    • Secondary Curvatures
    • -Cervical 
    • -Lumbar
  4. Kyphosis
    • Exaggerated posterior curvature of the thoracic region
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  5. Lordosis
    Exaggerated anterior curvature of the lumbar regionImage Upload 3
  6. Scoliosis
    • Lateral curvature of the lumbar or thoracic region
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    • Vertebral body of the typical vertebrae
    • Weight bearing portion of the vertebrae
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    • Vertebral Arch
    • Most posterior
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    • Pedicle
    • Direct connection between the body and arch
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    • Transverse process (fused rib element)
    • Comes out laterally
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    • Lamina
    • Connected to the pedicle
    • Come together to make a point
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    • Spinous Process
    • Where the two meet
    • What they check for scoliosus
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    • Superior Articular Process
    • Articulates with the inferior articular process above it
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    • Inferior Articular Process
    • Articulates with the superior articular processes below
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    • Intervertebral Foramen 
    • Comes out from lateral aspects
    • Spinal nerves go out of this
    • Each vertebrae has a half circle which turns into a full circle when connected
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    What is the red line and what is it in?
    Spinal Cord runs through the vertebral canal
  18. Where are the functional discs?
    • C2-C3 -> L5-S1
    • After S1 the vertebrae are fused
  19. Intervertebral disk
    • Shock absorber as we are walking
    • Fibrocartilage in between vertebrae
    • Slipped disk is when the cartilage comes out
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    • Anulus fibrosus
    • Outer fibrous portion
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    • Nucleus pulposus
    • Inside jelly portion
  22. What are the distinguishing features of the cervical vertebrae?
    • Only vertebrae with the transverse foramen
    • The spinous process has 2 heads
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    • Transverse foramen
    • These are holes for arteries that run up to the brain
    • Only the cervical vert. will have these
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    • Spinous Process
    • Only the cervical vertebrae has a bifurcated spinous process (2 heads)
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    • Vertebral Artery
    • Supplies blood to the brain
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    • Superior view of Atlas (CI vertebrae)
    • Holds the scull
    • Allows the yes nod (flexion, extension)
    • Defining characteristic: no vertebral body
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    • Facet for occipital condyle
    • Where the scull meets the vertebrae
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    • Superior, posterior, posterosuperior view of Axis (CII vertebrae)
    • Defining characteristic: small body and dens
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    • Dens
    • How CI and CII articulate with each other
    • Allows CI to rotate/pivot
    • Believed that this was the body of CI but it separated to allow movement
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    • Thoracic Vertebrae
    • Bigger than cervical vertebrae and where the ribs insert
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    • Superior costal facet (demifacet for articulation with head of its won rib)
    • Where the bottom of the rip articulates on the vertebrae body
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    • Transverse costal facet (facet for articulation with tubercle of its own rib)
    • The one that numbers the rib
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    • Inferior costal facet (demifacet for articulation with the head of the rib below)
    • Where the top of the rib below articulates
  34. Where do the ribs articulate?
    • Head of the rib articulates with the body of the vertebrae (superior and inferior; the rib shares 2 vertebrae)
    • Tubercle of the rib articulates with the transverse process of the vertebrae
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    Which rib is this?
    7th rib
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    • Lumbar Vertebrae (superior/right lateral view)
    • Biggest vertebrae and the most weight bearing
    • Look for size and flat, blunt spinous process
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    • Spinous process
    • Flat, blunt and stick straight out
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    • Anterior view of the sacrum
    • Holes are the anterior sacral foramina
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    • Side view of the sacral
    • Facet for articulation with pelvic bone
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    • Coccyx
    • Defining characteristic: small and fused together
  41. Characteristics of Cervical Vertebrae
    • Small, wide body
    • Short, bifid; projects directly posteriorly
    • Triangle vertebral foramen
    • Contains foramina
  42. Characteristics of Thoracic Vertebrae
    • Body: larger than cervical; heart shaped; bears two costal facets
    • Spinous processes: long, sharp; projects inferiorly
    • Vertebral foramen: circular
    • Transverse process: bear facets for ribs
  43. Characteristics of Lumbar Vertebrae
    • Body: massive; kidney shaped
    • Spinous process: short, blunt; projects directly posteriorly
    • Vertebral foramen: triangular
    • Transverse processes: thin and tapered
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    • Sternum
    • Anterior
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    • Ribs
    • Posterior and wrap around
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    • Sternum
    • Suns down the midline and has 3 main parts
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    Manubrium of the sternum
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    Body of sternum
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    • Xiphoid porcess
    • Can be fused to the body, separated, or a body can be without
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    Articular site for clavical
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    Attachment site for ribI
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    • Articular demifacets for rib II
    • Half comes from the manubrium and the other half comes from the body
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    Jugular notch
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    • Sternal angle (manubriosternal joint)
    • Manubrium is angled and this is the spot where it is articulating with the body
  55. True Ribs
    • Pairs 1-7
    • Attach directly to the sternum via their own costal cartilage
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  56. False Ribs
    • Pairs 8-12
    • Pairs 8-10 have their costal cartilage attached to the costal cartilage of the rib just superior to it (8 attached to 7; 9 attached to 8)
    • Pairs 11-12 do not have an attachment to the sternum (floating ribs)
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    • Head of the rib
    • Posterior and articulates with the vertebral body
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    • Costal cartilage
    • Anterior and articulates with the sternum
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    • Tubercle
    • Posterior side and articulates with transverse of the vertebrae
Author
Zaqxz
ID
340599
Card Set
Bones of the Axial Skeleton
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