
The rise of modern science
 Modern science can be summed up in the three concepts:
 empiricism: the importance of reliable, quantifiable experimental data
 rationalism: a logical thought process
 scepticism: a mindset that does not accept things at face value but relies on objective data.

Greeks and Middle Ages
 Most books on history and philosophy that start with ancient greece and skip to Europe around the 13th century are Eurocentric.
 Pays little attention to inputs from other culture in the origins and development of science, particularly during the European Middle ages.
 Roger Bacon: 12141294 pioneered the concept of using experiments to find out about the natural world.
 William of Ockham (12851349) whose razor still encourages us to consider the simplest explanations first

Renaissance Enlightenment
1300 – 1600
 Renaissance Europe saw the beginnings of modern science.
 Leonardo da Vinci: 1452 1519, great observer and innovator although debate about whether his work was really science.
 Francis Bacon (15611662) and Galileo (15641642): emphasised the importance of collecting data through observation and experimentation. Their approach much more recognised today as 'science'
 Word 'science' not coined until 19th century.
 Many pinpoint the start of what we now call modern science to the founding of the Royal Society in November 1660.

Timelines
 Figure 5.2. Traditional view of the events culminating in the development of modern science. The arrows represent the pace of development. This view implies that after the flowering of philosophy, geometry and detailed observations of the Greek period, there was a lull until the European Renaissance. It ignores the important developments in mathematics taking place in the Arab world and the important technological advances in China that underpinned the later explosion.

6.2 Four ancient Chinese inventions
 During the Tang and Song dynasties, China was the world leader in technology and science (600 AD to 1500 AD).
 Four famous great Chinese inventions:
 Paper: important precursor to the development of printing and books that helped disseminate the new ideas about science throughout the world. Created first paper in the world by drying pulp made from bark, mulberry fibres, hemp 2nd century BC.
 Printing: Diamond Sutra oldest printed book published in 858 AD
 Magnetic compass: chinese discovered iron that could be magnetised by contact with lodestone. First compass was an iron fish pointing south, floating in bowl of water. Facilitated with later European explorations.
 Gun powder: Huge impact on flow of ideas through its effect on wars

Contribution of China to science
 Mo Tzu 470391 BC
 Refelctive learning 'scepticism' don't take things at face value
 Earth revolved around the sun
 Observations similar to newton's 1st law
 Emphasis on data collection rather than theory empiricism

The language of science
 Roots of modern science usually considered to go bacl to the ancient greeks
 The Greeks: developed logic
 Made observations
 Developed mathematics particularly geometry
 Greeks adopted the 60 base number system used in geometry from the Babylonians, who lived in the region now known as Iraq around 800 BCE.
 This system still used in navigation (degrees and minutes) and for time (hours, min, sec).
 The Romans (who came after the greeks) used a cumbersome system for writing their numbers, which made complex calculations difficult.
 2 important breakthroughs in mathematics were:
 Development of the arabic numerals use today
 Invention of the decimal system
Both these have their origins in India and the Middle East. The words algebra and algorithm are Arabic in Origin.

Key contribution from greek culture to modern western science
 Rationalism: logic and the culture of debate and open discussion
 Mathematics (geometry)
 Empiricism: beginnings of experimentation
 Communication: writing, compilations, discussions

Euclid
 Greek contribution 300BCE
 Had a book called 'The Elements' the wikipedia of ancient Greece. One of the first books ever translated and published after The Bible
 Remained required reading for educated people until the 20th century.
 Known for mathematics: geometry and rationalism through proofs
 Euclidian geometry
 Deductive treatment and proofs

Archimedes 280 BC
 Ancient greek
 Realised that the number pi features in the formula for the circumference and area of the circle, and volume and and area of sphere.
 Found that displacement can be used to calculate volume of object.
 Asked to find if crown was real gold:
 Knew that density of an object= mass/volume
 Density of silver < gold
 Mass of crown calculated using balance
 Calculate density of crown
 Crown not pure gold!!

Why does Prof Peter Doherty call archimedes the first scientist?
 Science tells a story
 There was a problem
 Used logic (rationalism)
 Built a model based on known info
 Made a prediction (hypothesis)
 Tested it (empiricism)
 Publicly announced the results (allegedly) by running naked through the streets shouting Eureka

Aristotle 350 BC
 Ancient Greece
 Overlapped with Euclid
 Developed rules for reasoning
 Deductive reasoning/rationalism: if premise (a) and premise (b) then conclusion (c)
 ALL men are mortal, Socrates is a man, Socrates is mortal.
 Defined truth in a way that we recognise in science: "to say of what is that it is, and of what is not that it is not, is true"
 Correspondence theory of truth.
 Used physical evidence:
 Showed that the earth is spherical (curved phases of moon plus curvature of sky)
 Measure size of earth
 But put earth at centre of universe

How did Greek Knowledge get 'lost'?

