Immunology Exam 1
True/False: humans are resistant to most plant and animal pathogens
type of immunity that consists of non-specific things like skin or lysoszymes in tears or mucous
type of immunity that is very specific and LEARNED
Why did skin evolve to be dead?
if alive it could be prone to many environmental insults (UV rays, pathogens)
By being dead it is like a suit of amour
subset of dendritic cells in the skin are called
bacteria that are salt loving
Different parts of the body produce ____ enzyme that hydrolyzes bacterial cell walls
how does lysozyme work?
Lysozyme hydrolyzes sugar linkages in peptidoglycan in bacterial cell wall
disease that can result from failure to lubricate the eye
tears that are always present in the eye are ___ tears but tears produced from irritatant are ____ tears
where is the greatest amount of bacteria are found?
skin and digestive system
True/False: Vitamin B12 is bacterial and is completely produced by bacteria in the gut
FALSE not completely produced by bacteria in the gut
Identical twins: the ____ twin has lower diversity of bacteria and higher enzymes than the other one
many antimicrobials made by our bodies are ____
True/False: erythrocytes are NOT a major component of the immune system
TRUE! but they are blood cells
what are platelets involved with? (2)
True/False: macrophages are mainly crucial for innate immunity
crucial for both innate and adaptive systems
Are NK cells more innate or adaptive?
but have a strong link to adaptive though
what are the proteins on the surface of our cells that indicates to our bodies what is self (so they don't attack it)
HLA: innate or adaptive
much more adaptive because it is much more specific than innate
why would a virus cause a cell to lose its HLA?
this is so the adaptive immune system wont go after it and protect it because they wont recognize it and it wont protect the cell because it is not a self cell
what is one of the major inhibitory signals for NK cells
HLA--> because if the HLA is there then the assumption is the cell is fine
without the HLA-- NK cells assume that its not self and they will go after it
What is a cell that is good to have without HLA?
Cancer cells because then the NK will go after them
____ is inherent to human cells so when it gets changed or altered it allows infected cells to evade the immune response
two main functions of neutrophils
certain patterns that you would find among pathogens but not normal human cells in order to differentiate between the two
what is the point of PAMPs
they are different from us and ignite the immune system
Pre existing receptors for PAMPs on immune cells and they recognize PAMPS
True/False: cytokines are both innate and adaptive
true! they are how immune cells communicates with each other
is the compliment more innate or adaptive?
it is BOTH but more innate
_____ _____ help protect the body against complement when it is not neededà because complement is a very efficient system
these events are involved in vasodilation and increased permeability of the blood vessels
pyrexia and febrile response both mean
hyperthermia and fever are the same thing
hyperthermia is more like heat stroke but different than a fever
Which could cause a fever?
B.Non infectious causes
C.Both of them
D.None of them
Answer: C. you can have a fever from microbial but can also be non-microbial factors also (example: side effects from certain medications and cancers)
what are the two classes of pyrogens and what are examples
infectious--> microbial and you have a fever to heal yourself
non-infectious--> side effects from drugs
pyrogens affect what?
Hypothalamus secretes _____ which resets the hypothalamic thermostat
they are hormones and work short distances, they are all over the body in males and females, there is a lot of them involved in a bunch of processesà involved in inflammation and anti-inflammation
Immunology Exam 1
Exam 1 Material from the Notes sections of the powerpoints