Immunology Exam 1

  1. True/False: humans are resistant to most plant and animal pathogens
  2. type of immunity that consists of non-specific things like skin or lysoszymes in tears or mucous
    innate immunity
  3. type of immunity that is very specific and LEARNED
  4. Why did skin evolve to be dead?
    if alive it could be prone to many environmental insults (UV rays, pathogens)

    By being dead it is like a suit of amour
  5. subset of dendritic cells in the skin are called
    langerhans cells
  6. bacteria that are salt loving
  7. Different parts of the body produce ____ enzyme that hydrolyzes bacterial cell walls
  8. how does lysozyme work?
    Lysozyme hydrolyzes sugar linkages in peptidoglycan in bacterial cell wall
  9. disease that can result from failure to lubricate the eye
  10. tears that are always present in the eye are ___ tears but tears produced from irritatant are ____ tears
    • basal
    • reflex
  11. where is the greatest amount of bacteria are found?
    skin and digestive system
  12. True/False: Vitamin B12 is bacterial and is completely produced by bacteria in the gut
    FALSE not completely produced by bacteria in the gut
  13. Identical twins: the ____ twin has lower diversity of bacteria and higher enzymes than the other one
  14. many antimicrobials made by our bodies are ____
  15. True/False: erythrocytes are NOT a major component of the immune system
    TRUE! but they are blood cells
  16. what are platelets involved with? (2)
    • inflammation 
    • clotting
  17. True/False: macrophages are mainly crucial for innate immunity

    crucial for both innate and adaptive systems
  18. Are NK cells more innate or adaptive?

    but have a strong link to adaptive though
  19. what are the proteins on the surface of our cells that indicates to our bodies what is self (so they don't attack it)
  20. HLA: innate or adaptive
    much more adaptive because it is much more specific than innate
  21. why would a virus cause a cell to lose its HLA?
    this is so the adaptive immune system wont go after it and protect it because they wont recognize it and it wont protect the cell because it is not a self cell
  22. what is one of the major inhibitory signals for NK cells
    HLA--> because if the HLA is there then the assumption is the cell is fine

    without the HLA-- NK cells assume that its not self and they will go after it
  23. What is a cell that is good to have without HLA?
    Cancer cells because then the NK will go after them
  24. ____ is inherent to human cells so when it gets changed or altered it allows infected cells to evade the immune response
  25. two main functions of neutrophils
    • phagocytize cells 
    • produce chemicals
  26. certain patterns that you would find among pathogens but not normal human cells in order to differentiate between the two
  27. what is the point of PAMPs
    they are different from us and ignite the immune system 

    Pre existing receptors for PAMPs on immune cells and they recognize PAMPS
  28. True/False: cytokines are both innate and adaptive
    true! they are how immune cells communicates with each other
  29. is the compliment more innate or adaptive?
    it is BOTH but more innate
  30. _____ _____ help protect the body against complement when it is not neededà because complement is a very efficient system
    inhibitory protein
  31. these events are involved in vasodilation and increased permeability of the blood vessels
    cytokine storms
  32. pyrexia and febrile response both mean
  33. hyperthermia and fever are the same thing

    hyperthermia is more like heat stroke but different than a fever
  34. Which could cause a fever?

    A.Infectious causes

    B.Non infectious causes

    C.Both of them

    D.None of them
    Answer: C. you can have a fever from microbial but can also be non-microbial factors also (example: side effects from certain medications and cancers)
  35. what are the two classes of pyrogens and what are examples
    • infectious--> microbial and you have a fever to heal yourself
    • non-infectious--> side effects from drugs
  36. pyrogens affect what?
    the hypothalamus
  37. Hypothalamus secretes _____ which resets the hypothalamic thermostat
  38. they are hormones and work short distances, they are all over the body in males and females, there is a lot of them involved in a bunch of processesà involved in inflammation and anti-inflammation
Card Set
Immunology Exam 1
Exam 1 Material from the Notes sections of the powerpoints