What drug, other than alcohol, was found most frequently in the Los Angeles Field Validation Study?
What does “polydrug use” mean?
Ingesting two or more drugs
How common was polydrug use in the Los Angeles Field Validation Study?
More than 70% of the subjects had two or more drug categories in them
How good were the DREs in the Field Validation Study?
Nearly 80% of the time when the DREs said a particular category of drugs was present, that category was found in the subject’s blood.
In 92.5% of the subjects, the DREs correctly identified at least one of the categories that were present
In the University of Tennessee Study, what percentage of injured drivers had drugs other than alcohol in them?
40% of those drivers had evidence of other drugs in their urine
Name six different CNS Depressants
- Diazapam (Anti anxiety)
- Soma (Barbiturate)
- Thorazine (Anti phsychotic)
- fluxatine (prozac) Antidepressant
- secobarbital (barbiturate)
- Librax (combo)
Name four different CNS Stimulants
Name a major analog of PCP
Name four different synthetic Hallucinogens
Name two naturally-occurring Hallucinogens
Name the three sub-categories of Inhalants
Volatile Solvents, Aerosols, Anesthetic Gases
What is the active ingredient in Cannabis?
True or False: Pulse rate is measured in units of “millimeters of mercury”
FALSE: pulse rate is measured in “beats per minute”
Name three different pulse points, and indicate where they are located.
Radial, Brachial and Carotid pulse points
What is the “average” range of adult human pulse rate, for DRE purposes?
60-90 beats per minute
The force that the circulating blood exerts on the walls of the arteries
Name the instrument used to measure blood pressure.
When does blood pressure reach its highest value? What is the highest value called?
The systolic pressure is reached when the heart contracts and pushes blood into the arteries
What does “Hg” stand for?
Chemical symbol for mercury (“Hydrargyrum”, Latin word for “Mercury”).
Blood pressure is measured in
millimeters of mercury
What category of drugs causes VGN but not HGN?
No drug causes VGN but not HGN
What is unique about the drug Methaqualone (Quaaludes) and Soma?
Both are CNS Depressants that cause pupil dilation.
Name two CNS Stimulants other than Cocaine or the Amphetamine compounds
Ritalin and Ephedrine, Methcathinone or Cathinone
Amphetamines produce the same effects as Cocaine with the exception of
Why is it sometimes difficult for a DRE to obtain evidence of CNS Stimulant influence when examining a Cocaine user?
- effects only continue for 5 – 10 minutes when smoked.
- 5-15 minutes when injected.
. How do CNS Stimulants usually affect the blood pressure and pulse rate?
elevate both blood pressure and pulse rate.
True or False: A person under the influence of a CNS Stimulant alone usually will not exhibit HGN?
What is “bruxism”?
Grinding the teeth.
Name the four Divided Attention Tests administered during the DRE drug influence evaluation
Modified Romberg Balance
Walk and Turn
One Leg Stand
Finger to Nose
Why is the MRB the first test administered?
What four validated clues of impairment have been established for the One Leg Stand (OLS) Test?
Sways while balancing
Uses arms for balance
Puts the foot down
How many times is the OLS administered during the DRE drug influence evaluation?
Which foot must the subject stand on first when performing the OLS?
How many validated clues of impairment have been established for the Walk and Turn (WAT) test? Name them.
Eight validated clues
Cannot keep balance during the instructions
Starts too soon
Stops while walking
Does not touch heel-to-toe
Steps off the line
Uses arms for balance
Incorrect number of steps
In what sequence is the subject instructed to touch the index fingers to the nose on the Finger to Nose (FTN) test?
Left, Right, Left, Right, Right, Left
What does the number denoting the size of a hypodermic needle refer to?
The inside diameter of the needle
What does “Synesthesia” mean?
A mixing of senses, i.e. hearing colors or seeing sounds
What is “Sinsemilla”?
A variety of marijuana with a high concentration of THC
What are the twelve major components of the DRE drug influence evaluation?
Breath Alcohol Test
Interview of Arresting Officer
Examinations of the Eyes
Divided Attention Tests
Vital Signs Examinations
Dark Room Examinations
Examination for Muscle Tone
Examination for Injection Sites
Opinion of the Evaluator
Name the ten major body systems
M is for Muscular System
U is for Urinary System
R is for Respiratory System
D is for Digestive System
E is for Endocrine System
R is for Reproductive System
S is for Skeletal System
I is for Integumentary System
N is for Nervous System
C is for Circulatory System
What is the distinction between the “Smooth” muscles and the ”Striated” muscles?
We consciously control the Striated; we don’t consciously control the Smooth
What do we call the chemicals produced by the Endocrine System?
What is a neuron?
A nerve cell
What do we call the space between two nerve cells?
Synapse, or synaptic gap
What do we call the chemicals that pass from one nerve cell to the next?
What do we call the part of the nerve cell that sends out the neurotransmitter?
What do we call the part of a nerve cell that receives the neurotransmitter?
What do the Sensory Nerves do?
Carry messages to the brain, from the sense organs, pain sensors, etc.
What do the Motor Nerves do?
Carry messages from the brain, to the muscles, etc.
Name the two sub-divisions of Motor Nerves.
Voluntary (control striated muscles) and Autonomic (control smooth muscles)
Name the two sub-divisions of Autonomic Nerves and describe their functions.
Sympathetic (command the body’s response to fear, excitement, etc.), and Parasympathetic (promote the body’s tranquil activities)
What does it mean to say a drug is “sympathomimetic”?
It means the drug’s effects mimic those caused by messages transmitted along sympathetic nerves (excitement, agitation, arousal, etc.)
What does it mean to say a drug is “parasympathomimetic”?
The drug’s effects mimic those caused by messages transmitted along parasympathetic nerves (relaxation, calm, sleep, etc.)
Which two categories of drugs can most appropriately be called sympathomimetic?
CNS Stimulants and Hallucinogens
Which category can most appropriately be called parasympathomimetic?
What is an artery?
Strong, elastic blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the body’s tissues and organs
What is a vein?
Blood vessel that carries blood back to the heart from tissues and organs
What are the Pulmonary Arteries, and what are unique about them?
They are the arteries that carry blood from the heart to the lungs. They are the only arteries that carry blood depleted of oxygen.
What are the Pulmonary Veins and what is so special about them?
They are the veins that carry blood back to the heart from the lungs. They are the only veins that carry blood rich in oxygen.