Genetic 423 midterm

  1. These types of mutants cannot grow on minimal medium and there for lack key anabolic funtions
  2. What is the function of different ARG genes in Neurospora?
    One gene one function. Each gene seemed to control 1 enzyme.
  3. Seymour Benzer discovered what abou genes?
    Genes have locations called locus or loci for plural.
  4. To help study genes what did they use to produce large amount sof bacteria?
    Bacteriophages. T4 (AIDS)
  5. Recessive phages mutants can be placed into ________.
    Complementation groups.
  6. Coplementation groups are resseive. What happened if there are no plaques?
    No compliment and therefore must be on the same gene.
  7. A recombination map of the rll region shows that genes are divisible linear structures, not ______.
  8. Biological diversity come from?
    Genetic Mutation.
  9. Who discovered the tranforming principle?
    Fredrick Griffith.
  10. Heat-killed S-form S. pneumoniae contain the "transfiorming principle". Desrcribe.
    These heat-killed s-forms where combined with the living R forms. over time the created living S forms.
  11. How many hydrogen bonds between T and A?
  12. How many hydrogen bonds between C and G?
  13. Because radioactive phosphorus but not sulfer was recovered from the Hesey and Chase experiments,this meant that the genetic material was?
  14. Whio discovered that the DNA is a double helix?
    Edwin Chargaff
  15. DNA is compsed of?
    nucleotides that are bonded together by phosphodiester bonds.
  16. What are nucleotides made of?
    Sugar, phosphate and nitrogenous base.
  17. How are the two strands in DNA joined?
    They are joined in an antiparallel direction.
  18. How many arrangements of gentic code are there?
  19. Silent mutations cause?
    No difference.
  20. Missence causes?
    Ends up substituding a codon. Doesn't make sense and may or maynot work.
  21. Nonsense causes?
    This results in a stop codon. Everything falls apart. If it happens at the end it could still; work out, but if its at the begining it will cause failure.
  22. Frame Shift causes?
    this adding or deletingh of bases causing a change down stream.
  23. Loss of function mutations are usually?
  24. Full loss of function.
  25. Partial loss of function
  26. Gain-of-function: has two possibilities.
    Incease gene function (hypermorphing) or new gene function (neomorphic)
  27. Has an opposite gene function.
  28. DNA exists as part of a protein known as?
  29. This is the basic unti of chromatin structure.
  30. What is the size of the nucelosome?
  31. What is the size of a eukaryotic cell?
  32. WHat builds the nucelosome into a ball?
  33. These beads on a string are further organized into 10nm fibers and order structres by?
    Scfolding proteins.
  34. Wshat structure regulates accessibility to DNA?
    Dynamic Chromatin
  35. These are usually near centromeres and highly condensed.
  36. These are chromatin that are loose in organmization.
  37. Enzymatic modification to histones affect______
    chromatin structure
  38. Histones have many sites to interact, where are thier modification sites?
  39. What are the six kinds of histione modifying enzymes?
    Histane acetyl transferases (HATs ass acetyl groups), Histonje methyl tranferaces (HMTases add methyl groups), HDACs histone deacetylases, histone demethylases, and histone kinases (add phosphates) and histone phosphases.
  40. what are some components of DNA replication?
    helicases, ligases, dna polymerase, ORCS (origin of replication complexes.
  41. What are some components of transcription?
    RNA polymerase, transcription factors, histones, and transcription activators/co-activators
  42. What are the four main types of chromosomal rearrangments tha can be generated by breakage and rejoinging?
    Deletion, Inversion, Duplication, and translocation
  43. Duplications can come in two different forms?
    Tandem and Nontandem.
  44. Tandem dublications.
    Are on the same chromosome: duplicated ion the same order or reverse order.
  45. Nontandem duplication
    Are on differnt chromosomes: duplicated in same order or reverse order
  46. What are the chromosomal alterations
    Deletions, duplications, inversions, translocations
  47. These result in full-loss-of-function of genes in interval.
  48. These result in increase in gene function of genes ion interval.
  49. What are the two types of inversions?
    Pericentric and paracentric
  50. Pericentric crossovers lead to?
  51. Paracentic crossovers lead to?
    Joined chromatids, random breakage, and acentic fragments.
  52. These can be used to suppress recombination in experimental organisms
    Balancer chromosomes
  53. Missing or have individual chromosomes
  54. "2n" diploid. normal chromosomes
  55. Entire set of chromosomes is duplicated at some copy number.
  56. Most cases of trisomy, monosomy, nullsomy, are.....
  57. Control of eukaryotic transcription requires non-coding cis-acting regulatory DNA sequences known as:
    enhancers and promoters
  58. Bind to the promoter as postions RNA polymerase II at the transciption start site
    Basal factors
  59. These stabilize basal factors and recruit coactivators that open up chromatin structure
  60. These have the opposite function of activators
  61. Represors recruit these to directly prevent RNA poly from binding to the promoter and can close the chromatin
  62. These can compress transcription under different contexts
  63. These proteins are modular.
    Transcription proteins
  64. These marks can be preserved during DNA replication?
  65. DNA methylation at CpG islands represses....
  66. mRNAs have intron sequences removed by
  67. Splicing requires specific RNA sequences and removes introns via?
    A RNA lariat intermediate
  68. Splicing is catalyzed by the
  69. Translation is catalyzed by the
  70. tRNAs are charged by
    aminoacyl tRNA synthetases
  71. Wobble pairing in the 3rd codon accounts for?
    the redundant genetic code
  72. mRNAs are modified at?
    the 5' and 3' ends
  73. Translation initiation depends on?
    cap-binding initiation factors and poly-A binding protein (PABP)
  74. 4E-BP1 blocks cap complex formation under?
    low nutrient conditions
  75. the length of the poly-A tail is regulated by?
    circadian rhythms
  76. non-coding RNAs are coded by stand-alone genes or as part of?
    other pre-mRNAs
  77. Small RNAs are processed by?
    Dicer and require RISC (RNA-induced silencing complex) proteins.
Card Set
Genetic 423 midterm
423 mid