DRE School Glossary Terms

  1. DRUG
    • Any substance that, when taken into the human body, can impair the ability of the person to
    • operate a vehicle safely.
  2. The adjustment of the eyes for viewing at various distances. Meaning the pupils will
    automatically constrict as objects move closer and dilate as objects move further away.
    ACCOMMODATION REFLEX
  3. Habitual, psychological, and physiological dependence on a substance beyond one’s voluntary
    control.
    ADDICTION
  4. One mechanism of polydrug interaction. For a particular indicator of impairment, two drugs
    produce an ______ ______ if they both affect the indicator in the same way. For example,
    cocaine elevates pulse rate and PCP also elevates pulse rate.
    ADDITIVE EFFECT
  5. A chemical that is found in, and can be physically extracted from, some substance. For
    example, Morphine is a natural _______ of Opium. It does not require a chemical reaction to
    produce Morphine from Opium.
    ALKALOID
  6. A drug that relieves or allays pain.
    ANALGESIC
  7. A chemical that is very similar to the drug, both in terms of molecular structure and in terms of
    psychoactive effects. For example, the drug Ketamine is an _______ of PCP.
    ANALOG (of a drug)
  8. One mechanism of polydrug interaction. For a particular indicator of impairment, two drugs
    produce an antagonistic effect if they affect the indicator in opposite ways. For example,
    Heroin constricts pupils while Cocaine dilates pupils. The combination of Heroin and Cocaine
    produces an __________ effect on pupil size. Depending on how much of each drug was taken,
    and on when they were taken, the suspect's pupils could be constricted, or dilated, or within
    the DRE Average range of pupil size.
    ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT
  9. A drug that produces a general or local insensibility to pain and other sensation.
    ANESTHETIC
  10. An abnormal heart rhythm
    ARRHYTHMIA
  11. The strong, elastic blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.
    ARTERY
  12. A motor nerve that carries messages to the muscles and organs that we do not consciously
    control. There are two kinds of autonomic nerves, the sympathetic nerves and
    parasympathetic nerves.
    AUTONOMIC NERVE
  13. The part of a neuron (nerve cell) that sends out a neurotransmitter.
    AXON
  14. A hallucination where the user becomes panic‐stricken by what he/she is seeing or hearing,
    and may become uncontrollably excited, or even try to flee from the terror.
    BAD TRIP
  15. The percentage of alcohol in a person’s blood
    BLOOD ALCOHOL CONCENTRATION (BAC)
  16. The percentage of alcohol in a person’s blood as measured by a breath testing device.
    BREATH ALCOHOL CONTRATION (BrAC)
  17. A condition characterized by the alteration of manic and depressive states.
    BIPOLAR DISORDER
  18. The force exerted by blood on the walls of the arteries. _____ _______ changes continuously,
    as the heart cycles between contraction and expansion.
    BLOOD PRESSURE
  19. Abnormally slow heart rate.
    BRADYCARDIA
  20. Abnormally slow rate of breathing
    BRADYPNEA
  21. Grinding the teeth. This behavior is often seen in persons who are under the influence of
    Cocaine or other CNS Stimulants.
    BRUXISM
  22. This is the drug category that includes Marijuana. Marijuana comes primarily from the leaves
    of certain species of _______ plants that grow readily all over the temperate zones of the
    earth. Hashish is another drug in this category, and consists of the compressed leaves from
    female ________ plants. The active ingredient in both Marijuana and Hashish is a chemical
    called delta‐9 tetrahydrocannabinol, usually abbreviated THC.
    CANNABIS
  23. A metabolite of THC (tetrahydrocannabinol).
    CARBOXY THC
  24. A system within the body consisting of the brain, the brain stem, and the spinal cord.
    CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS)
  25. Abnormal pattern of breathing. Marked by breathlessness and deep, fast breathing.
    CHEYNE‐STOKES RESPIRATION
  26. One of the seven drug categories. CNS Depressants include alcohol, barbiturates, anti‐anxiety
    tranquilizers, and numerous other drugs.
    CNS DEPRESSANTS
  27. One of the seven drug categories. CNS Stimulants include Cocaine, the Amphetamines, Ritalin,
    Desoxyn, and numerous other drugs.
    CNS STIMULANTS
  28. An inflammation of the mucous membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelids caused by
    infection, allergy, or outside factors. May be bacterial or viral. Persons suffering from
    conjunctivitis may show symptoms in one eye only. This condition is commonly referred to as
    "pink eye", a condition that could be mistaken for the bloodshot eyes produced by alcohol or
    Cannabis.
    CONJUNCTIVITIS
  29. The "crossing" of the eyes that occurs when a person is able to focus on a stimulus as it is
    pushed slowly toward the bridge of their nose.
    CONVERGENCE
  30. Cocaine base, appears as a hard chunk form resembling pebbles or small rocks. It produces a
    very intense, but relatively short duration "high".
    CRACK/ROCK
  31. A written summary of a person's education, training, experience, noteworthy achievements
    and other relevant information about a particular topic.
    CURRICULUM VITAE (CV)
  32. A manifestation of impairment due to certain drugs, in which the person alternates between
    periods (or cycles) of intense agitation and relative calm. _____ _____, for example,
    sometimes will be observed in persons under the influence of PCP.
    CYCLIC BEHAVIOR
  33. A brief state characterized by incoherent excitement, confused speech, restlessness, and
    possible hallucinations
    DELIRIUM
  34. The part of a neuron (nerve cell) that receives a neurotransmitter.
    DENDRITE
  35. A condition that can result in insulin shock (taking too much insulin) which may produce
    tremors, increased blood pressure, rapid respiration, lack of coordination, headache,
    confusion, and seizures.
    DIABETES
  36. The chemical name for Heroin.
    DIACETYL MORPHINE
  37. Double vision.
    DIPLOPIA
  38. The lowest value of blood pressure. The blood pressure reaches its diastolic value when the
    heart is fully expanded, or relaxed.
    DIASTOLIC
  39. One of the seven drug categories. Includes drugs that inhibits pain by cutting off or
    disassociating the brain's perception of pain. PCP and its analogs are considered ______ ______.
    DISSOCIATIVE ANESTHETICS
  40. Concentrating on more than one thing at a time. The four psychophysical tests used by DREs
    require the suspect to ______ their _______.
    DIVIDED ATTENTION
  41. An effect that may occur when the body reacts to the presence of a drug by producing
    hormones or neurotransmitters to counteract the effects of the drug consumed.
    DOWNSIDE EFFECT
  42. An individual who successfully completed all phases of the DRE training requirements for
    certification established by the IACP and NHTSA. The word “evaluator,” “technician,” or similar
    words may be used as a substitute for “expert,” depending upon locale or jurisdiction.
    DRUG RECOGNITION EXPERT (DRE)
  43. Slurred speech. Difficult, poorly articulated speech
    DYSARTHIA
  44. An abnormal condition that prevents the affected person from properly estimating distances
    linked to muscular movements.
    DYSMETRIA
  45. A disorder of mood. Feelings of depression and anguish.
    DYSPHORIA
  46. Shortness of breath.
    DYSPNEA
  47. The network of glands that do not have ducts and other structures. They secrete hormones into the blood stream to affect a number of functions in the body.
    ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
  48. A person skilled in some art, trade, science or profession, having knowledge of matters not within the knowledge of persons of average education, learning and experience, who may assist a jury in arriving at a verdict by expressing an opinion on a state of facts shown by the evidence and based upon his or her special knowledge. (NOTE: Only the court can determine whether a witness is qualified to testify as an expert.)
    EXPERT WITNESS
  49. A vivid recollection of a portion of a hallucinogenic experience. Essentially, it is a very intense daydream. There are three types: (1) emotional -- feelings of panic, fear, etc.; (2) somatic -- altered body sensations, tremors, dizziness, etc.; and (3) perceptual -- distortions of vision, hearing, smell, etc.
    FLASHBACK
  50. An unsteady, staggering gait (walk) in which walking is uncoordinated and appears to be “not ordered.”
    GAIT ATAXIA
  51. Chatter, rambling or pointless speech. Talkative.
    GARRULITY
  52. Behavior or observations of the subject that are observed and not specifically tested for. (Observational and Behavioral Indicators)
    GENERAL INDICATOR
  53. A sensory experience of something that does not exist outside the mind, e.g., seeing, hearing, smelling, or feeling something that isn't really there. Also, having a distorted sensory perception, so that things appear differently than they are.
    HALLUCINATION
  54. One of the seven drug categories. Hallucinogens include LSD, MDMA, Peyote, Psilocybin, and numerous other drugs.
    HALLUCINOGENS
  55. Sometimes referred to as “marijuana oil” it is a highly concentrated syrup-like oil extracted from marijuana. It is normally produced by soaking marijuana in a container of solvent, such as acetone or alcohol for several hours and after the solvent has evaporated, a thick syrup-like oil is produced with a high THC content
    HASH OIL
  56. A form of cannabis made from the dried and pressed resin of a marijuana plant.
    HASHISH
  57. A blow or bump to the head that injures the brain and may cause observable signs and symptoms which may mimic drug and alcohol impairment.
    HEAD TRAUMA
  58. A powerful and widely-abused narcotic analgesic that is chemically derived from morphine. The chemical, or generic name of heroin is "diacetyl morphine".
    HEROIN
  59. Dynamic balance, or steady state, involving levels of salts, water, sugars and other material in the body’s fluids.
    HOMEOSTASIS
  60. Involuntary jerking of the eyes occurring as the eyes gaze to the side.
    HORIZONTAL GAZE NYSTAGMUS (HGN)
  61. Chemicals produced by the body's endocrine system that are carried through the blood stream to the target organ. They exert great influence on the growth and development of the individual, and that aid in the regulation of numerous body processes.
    HORMONES
  62. A metabolite of THC (tetrahydrocannabinol).
    HYDROXY THC
  63. Exaggerated or over extended motions
    HYPERFLEXIA
  64. Excess sugar in the blood.
    HYPERGLYCEMIA
  65. A deep, rapid or labored breathing
    HYPERPNEA
  66. Extremely high body temperature.
    HYPERPYREXIA
  67. A neurological condition marked by increased reflex reactions.
    HYPERREFLEXIA
  68. Abnormally high blood pressure. Do not confuse this with hypotension.
    HYPERTENSION
  69. An abnormal decrease of blood sugar levels.
    HYPOGLYCEMIA
  70. Shallow or slow breathing.
    HYPOPNEA
  71. Abnormally low blood pressure. Do not confuse this with hypertension.
    HYPOTENSION
  72. Decreased body temperature.
    HYPOTHERMIA
  73. A crystalline form of methamphetamine that produces a very intense and fairly long-lasting "high".
    ICE
  74. One of the several items used to describe the degradation of mental and/or physical abilities necessary for safely operating a vehicle.
    IMPAIRMENT
  75. One of the seven drug categories. The inhalants include volatile solvents (such as glue and gasoline), aerosols (such as hair spray and insecticides) and anesthetic gases (such as nitrous oxide).
    INHALANTS
  76. One method of ingesting certain drugs. Insufflation requires that the drug be in powdered form. The user rapidly draws the drug up into the nostril, usually via a paper or glass tube. Insufflation is also known as snorting.
    INSUFFLATION
  77. The skin and accessory structures, hair and nails. Functions include protection, maintenance of body temperature, excretion of waste, and sensory perceptions.
    INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
  78. "Within the eyeball".
    INTRAOCULAR
  79. A series of distinct sounds produced by blood passing through an artery, as the external pressure on the artery drops from the systolic value to the diastolic value.
    KOROTKOFF SOUNDS
  80. The inability of a person's eyes to converge, or "cross" as the person attempts to focus on a stimulus as it is pushed slowly toward the bridge of his or her nose.
    LACK OF CONVERGENCE (LOC)
  81. Physiological signs that are specifically assessed and are, for the most part, involuntary reflecting the status of the central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis (Physiological Indicators).
    MAJOR INDICATORS
  82. Common term for the Cannabis Sativa plant. Usually refers to the dried leaves of the plant. This is the most common form of the cannabis category.
    MARIJUANA
  83. A drug containing a synthetic form of THC (tetrahydrocannabinol). Marinol belongs to the cannabis category of drugs, but Marinol is not produced from any species of cannabis plant.
    MARINOL
  84. An opinion made by a DRE based on the evaluation that the state of a suspected impaired driver is more likely related to a medical impairment that has affected the subject’s ability to operate a vehicle safely.
    MEDICAL IMPAIRMENT
  85. The combined chemical and physical processes that take place in the body involving the distribution of nutrients and resulting in growth, energy production, the elimination of wastes, and other body functions.  There are two basic phases of metabolism: anabolism, the constructive phase during which molecules resulting from the digestive process are built up into complex compounds that form the tissues and organs of the body; and catabolism, the destructive phase during which larger molecules are broken down into simpler substances with the release of energy.
    METABOLISM
  86. A chemical product, formed by the reaction of a drug with oxygen and/or other substances in the body.
    METABOLITE
  87. Abnormally small (constricted) pupils.
    MIOSIS
  88. Nerves that carry messages away from the brain, to the body's muscles, tissues, and organs. Motor nerves are also known as efferent nerves.
    MOTOR NERVES
  89. A degenerative muscular disorder.
    MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS
  90. Rigid muscle tone.
    MUSCULAR HYPERTONICITY
  91. Abnormally large (dilated) pupils.
    MYDRIASIS
  92. One of the seven drug categories. Narcotic analgesics include opium, the natural alkaloids of opium (such as morphine, codeine and thebaine), the derivatives of opium (such as Heroin, Dilaudid, Oxycodone and Percodan), and the synthetic narcotics.
    NARCOTIC ANALGESICS
  93. A cord-like fiber that carries messages either to or from the brain. For drug evaluation and classification purposes, a nerve can be pictured as a series of "wire-like" segments, with small spaces or gaps between the segments.
    NERVE
  94. A nerve cell. The basic functional unit of a nerve. It contains a nucleus within a cell body with one or more axons and dendrites.
    NEURON
  95. Chemicals that pass from the axon of one nerve cell to the dendrite of the next cell, and that carry messages across the gap between the two nerve cells.
    NEUROTRANSMITTER
  96. One mechanism of polydrug interaction. For a particular indicator of impairment, two drugs produce a null effect if neither of them affects that indicator. For example, PCP does not affect pupil size, and alcohol does not affect pupil size. The combination of PCP and alcohol produces a null effect on pupil size.
    NULL EFFECT
  97. An involuntary jerking of the eyes.
    NYSTAGMUS
  98. A semi-conscious state of deep relaxation. Typically induced by impairment due to Heroin or other narcotic analgesics. The suspect's eyelids droop, and chin rests on the chest. Suspect may appear to be asleep, but can be easily aroused and will respond to questions.
    "ON THE NOD"
  99. One mechanism of polydrug interaction. For a particular indicator of impairment, two drugs produce an overlapping effect if one of them affects the indicator but the other doesn't. For example, cocaine dilates pupils while alcohol doesn't affect pupil size. The combination of cocaine and alcohol produces an overlapping effect on pupil size: the combination will cause the pupils to dilate.
    OVERLAPPING EFFECT
  100. An abnormal paleness or lack of color in the skin.
    PALLOR
  101. Mental disorder characterized by delusions and the projection of personal conflicts that are ascribed to the supposed hostility of others.
    PARANOIA
  102. Drug paraphernalia are the various kinds of tools and other equipment used to store, transport or ingest a drug. Hypodermic needles, small pipes, bent spoons, etc., are examples of drug paraphernalia. The singular form of the word is "paraphernalium". For example, one hypodermic needle would be called a "drug paraphernalium".
    PARAPHERNALIA
  103. An autonomic nerve that commands the body to relax and to carry out tranquil activities. The brain uses parasympathetic nerves to send "at ease" commands to the muscles, tissues, and organs.
    PARASYMPATHETIC NERVE
  104. Drugs that mimic neurotransmitter associated with the parasympathetic nerves. These drugs artificially cause the transmission of messages that produce lower blood pressure, drowsiness, etc.
    PARASYMPATHOMIMETIC DRUGS
  105. A contraction of PHENYL CYCLOHEXYL PIPERIDINE, or PCP. Formerly used as a surgical anesthetic, however, it has no current legitimate medical use in humans.
    PHENCYCLIDINE
  106. Often called "phencyclidine" or “PCP”, it is a specific drug belonging to the Dissociative Anesthetics category.
    PHENYL CYCLOHEXYL PIPERIDINE (PCP)
  107. A basic reference source for drug recognition experts. The PDR provides detailed information on the physical appearance and psychoactive effects of licitly-manufactured drugs.
    PHYSICIAN'S DESK REFERENCE (PDR)
  108. Physiology is the branch of biology that deals with the functions and activities of life or living matter and the physical and chemical phenomena involved.
    PHYSIOLOGY
  109. Literally, "hair standing up", or goose bumps. This condition of the skin is often observed in persons who are under the influence of LSD.
    PILOERECTION
  110. Ingesting drugs from two or more drug categories.
    POLYCATEGORY USE
  111. Ingesting two or more different drugs
    POLYDRUG USE
  112. A mental state characterized by a profound sense of intensified or altered sensory perception sometimes accompanied by hallucinations.
    PSYCHEDELIC
  113. Methods of investigating the mental (psycho-) and physical characteristics of a person suspected of alcohol or drug impairment. Most psychophysical tests employ the concept of divided attention to assess a suspect's impairment.
    PSYCHOPHYSICAL TESTS
  114. Literally, "creating psychosis" or "giving birth to insanity". A drug is considered to be psychotogenic if persons who are under the influence of the drug become insane, and remain so after the drug wears off.
    PSYCHOTOGENIC
  115. Literally, "mimicking psychosis" or "impersonating insanity". A drug is considered to be psychotomimetic if persons who are under the influence of the drug look and act insane while they are under the influence.
    PSYCHOTOMIMETIC
  116. Droopy eyelids.
    PTOSIS
  117. The rhythmic dilation and relaxation of an artery that results from the beating of the heart.
    PULSE
  118. The number of expansions of an artery per minute.
    PULSE RATE
  119. The pupils of the eyes will constrict and dilate depending on changes in lighting.
    PUPILLARY LIGHT REFLEX
  120. The continuous, irregular change in the size of the pupils that may be observed under room or steady light conditions.
    PUPILLARY UNREST
  121. A period of pupillary constriction followed by a period of pupillary dilation where the pupil steadily increases in size and does not return to its original constricted size.
    REBOUND DILATION
  122. Jerking of the eyes as they look straight ahead.
    RESTING NYSTAGMUS
  123. A dense white fibrous membrane that, with the cornea, forms the external covering of the eyeball (i.e., the white part of the eye).
    SCLERA
  124. Nerves that carry messages to the brain, from the various parts of the body, including notably the sense organs (eyes, ears, etc.). Sensory nerves are also known as afferent nerves.
    SENSORY NERVES
  125. The unpollinated female cannabis plant, with a relatively high concentration of THC.
    SINSEMILLA
  126. One method of ingesting certain drugs. Snorting requires that the drug be in powdered form. The user rapidly draws the drug up into the nostril, usually via a paper or glass tube. Snorting is also known as insufflation.
    SNORTING (See Insufflation)
  127. A medical device used to measure blood pressure. It consists of an arm or leg cuff with an air bag attached to a tube and a bulb for pumping air into the bag, and a gauge for showing the amount of air pressure being pressed against the artery.
    SPHYGMOMANOMETER
  128. Conforming to a model in comparative applications.
    STANDARDIZED
  129. There are three SFSTs, namely Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus (HGN), Walk and Turn (WAT), and One Leg Stand (OLS). Based on a series of controlled laboratory studies, scientifically validated clues of impairment have been identified for each of these three tests. They are the only Standardized Field Sobriety Tests for which validated clues have been identified.
    STANDARDIZED FIELD SOBRIETY TESTING (SFST)
  130. A medical instrument used, for drug evaluation and classification purposes, to listen to the sounds produced by blood passing through an artery.
    STETHOSCOPE
  131. A medical condition that occurs when a blood vessel that carries oxygen and nutrients to the brain is either blocked by a clot or a burst and may cause observable signs and symptoms which may mimic drug and alcohol impairment
    STROKE
  132. An autonomic nerve that commands the body to react in response to excitement, stress, fear, etc. The brain uses sympathetic nerves to send "wake up calls" and "fire alarms" to the muscles, tissues and organs.
    SYMPATHETIC NERVE
  133. Drugs that mimic the neurotransmitter associated with the sympathetic nerves. These drugs artificially cause the transmission of messages that produce elevated blood pressure, dilated pupils, etc.
    SYMPATHOMIMETIC DRUGS
  134. The gap or space between two neurons (nerve cells).
    SYNAPSE (or Synaptic Gap)
  135. A sensory perception disorder, in which an input via one sense is perceived by the brain as an input via another sense. An example of this would be a person “hearing” a phone ring and “seeing” the sound as a flash of light. Synesthesia sometimes occurs with persons under the influence of hallucinogens.
    SYNESTHESIA
  136. Done or acting according to a fixed plan or system; methodical.
    SYSTEMATIC
  137. The highest value of blood pressure. The blood pressure reaches its systolic value when the heart is fully contracted (systole), and blood is sent surging into the arteries.
    SYSTOLIC
  138. Abnormally rapid heart rate.
    TACHYCARDIA
  139. Abnormally rapid rate of breathing.
    TACHYPNEA
  140. The principal psychoactive ingredient in drugs belonging to the cannabis category.
    TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL (THC)
  141. An adjustment of the drug user's body and brain to the repeated presence of a drug. As tolerance develops, the user will experience diminishing psychoactive effects from the same dose of the drug. As a result, the user typically will steadily increase the dose he or she takes, in an effort to achieve the same psychoactive effect.
    TOLERANCE
  142. Scar tissue usually produced by repeated injection of drugs, via hypodermic needle, along a segment of a vein.
    TRACKS
  143. A blood vessel that carries blood back to the heart from the body tissues
    VEIN
  144. An involuntary jerking of the eyes (up-and-down) which occurs as the eyes are held at maximum elevation. The jerking should be distinct and sustained.
    VERTICAL GAZE NYSTAGMUS (VGN)
  145. A French expression literally meaning “to see, to say.” Loosely, this would be rendered in English as “To seek the truth,” or “to call it as you see it.” In a law or court context, one application of voir dire is to question a witness to assess his or her qualifications to be considered an expert in some matter pending before the court.
    VOIR DIRE
  146. A motor nerve that carries messages to a muscle that we consciously control.
    VOLUNTARY NERVE
  147. This occurs in someone who is physically addicted to a drug when he or she is deprived of the drug. If the craving is sufficiently intense, the person may become extremely agitated, and even physically ill.
    WITHDRAWAL
Author
Flipit
ID
340241
Card Set
DRE School Glossary Terms
Description
DRE School
Updated