Organic Chemistry

  1. Define - Methane
  2. Define - Ethane
  3. Define - Propane
  4. Prefix - 1
  5. Prefix - 2
  6. Prefix - 3
  7. Prefix - 4
  8. Prefix - 5
  9. Prefix - 6
  10. Prefix - 7
  11. Prefix - 8
  12. Prefix - 9
  13. Prefix - 10
  14. Prefix - 11
  15. Prefix - 12
  16. Naming Rules - Alkanes
    • Named after the longest continuous carbon chain within the compound.  
    • If two or more chains are of equal length, the most highly substituted chain (one with the greatest number of other groups attached) takes precedence.
    • Number the chain
    • Name the substituents
    • Assign a number each substituent
    • Complete the name
  17. Naming Rules - Cycloalkanes
    Named according to the number of carbon atoms in the ring with the prefix cyclo-
  18. Naming Rules - Alkenes
    • Background: These are compounds containing carbon-carbon double bonds
    • Same as naming alkanes except that the ending -ene is used rather than -ane.
    • Number the backbone so the double bond receives the lowest number possible.
  19. Naming Rules - Cycloalkanes
    Named like cycloalkanes but with the suffix -ene rather than -ane.
  20. Naming Rules - Alkynes
    • Background: Compounds that possess carbon-carbon triple bonds.  
    • Use the suffix -yne replacing -ane in the parent alkane.
  21. Naming Rules - Haloalkanes
    • Background: Compounds containing a halogen substituent.  
    • Halogen is the highest priority substituent, ensure it has the lower number when deciding from which end of the carbon chain to start counting.
  22. Naming Rules - Alcohols
    • Named by replacing the -e of the corresponding alkane with -ol.
    • Chain is numbered such that the carbon attached to the hydroxyl group receives the lowest number possible.
    • Molecules with two hydroxyl groups are called diols (or glycol) and are named wit hate suffix -diol.
  23. Naming Rules - Ethers
    • Background: Ethers are named as derivatives of alkanes and the larger alkyl group is chosen as the backbone.  
    • Ether functionality is specified as an alkoxy- prefix, indicating the presence of an ether (oxy-) and the corresponding smaller alkyl group (alk-)
    • Chain numbered to give the ether the lowest position.
  24. Naming Rules - Aldehydes and Ketones
    • Named according to the longest chain containing the aldehyde functional group.
    • Suffix -al replaces the -e of the corresponding alkane.  
    • Carbonyl carbon receives the lowest number, although numbers are not always necessary since by definition an aldehyde is terminal and receives the number 1.  
    • Ketones are named analogously with aldehydes but with -one as a suffix.  
    • In complex molecules the carbonyl group can be named as a prefix with the term oxo-
  25. Naming Rules - Carboxylic Acids
    Named with the ending -oic Acid replacing the -e.
  26. Naming Rules - Amines
    • Longest Chain attached to the nitrogen atom is taken as the backbone. Simple compounds name the alkane and replace the final -e with -amine.  
    • More complex molecules are often named using the prefix amino-.  
    • The prefix N- is used to specify the location of an additional alkyl group attached the nitrogen.
  27. Define - Alkanes
    • Single Bond
    • Hydrocarbons that have the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms attached to each carbon, and thus are said to be saturated.
    • As the number of straight chain alkane increases, the melting point, and density also increase.
    • Branched molecules have slightly lower boiling and melting points than their straight chain isomers.
  28. Define - Alkenes
    Double Bond
  29. Define - Alkynes
    Triple Bond
  30. Define - Hybridization
    • Theory developed to account for discrepancies in orbital models.
    • Combines various orbital types such as sp3
  31. Define - Nucleophiles
    • Molecules that are attracted to positive charge.  
    • Electron rich species that are often but not always negatively charged.
    • Stronger the Base the stronger the nucleophiles
  32. Define - Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
    Both precise location and the exact momentum of an atomic particle cannot be simultaneously determined.
Card Set
Organic Chemistry
Organic Chemistry