WBO Health Definition
A state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing with merely the absence of disease or infirmity
- To be mentally alert, happy and be in control.
- Looking after your brain by exercising it and resting it sufficiently.
- To be able to maintain good working relationships with others.
- To care for others and behave appropriately.
- If relationships are not maintained, it can lead to poor health such as stress or depression
- To be in good physical shape.
- To be able to look after your body to keep it in working order and avoid things that abuse it such as drugs or alcohol.
What is physical fitness?
The ability to perform physical tasks efficiently and effectively.
What is peak physical fitness?
When the body is in the best shape possible to perform your physical task as efficiently and effectively as possible
What is exercise?
work done to develop physical health
What is training?
work done to develop peak physical fitness
What is skilled performance/skill?
the learnt ability to bring about a predetermined goal or result with maximum certainty and efficiency.
What is personality and how can it influence participation?
- Your personality is the way you are and what distinguishes you from others.
- If a person is shy then they would be more inclined to play a solitary sport, such as rock climbing
- If a person is outgoing then they would be more inclined to play a competitive team sport, such as rugby
What is extrinsic motivation?
When you are motivated by things outside you, e.g. desire to win cups,money or please other people
What is intrinsic motivation?
When the motivation come from inside you- you are participating because you love to compete, win or lose.
Effects of Arousal on participation
- If you are laid back or uninterested then you will perform poorly.
- If you are over excited or worried you will also perform poorly
Effects of Competition on participation
- Many people are competitive by nature. This would influence them to participate in competitive sports.
- However, competitions can put some people off participating
Effects media has on participation
The media decides what sports to cover and to what depth. This would influence people to play popular sports such as football or tennis.
What is your diet?
Your diet is your particular eating pattern.
Why do you need food?
- To maintain life
- for growth and repair
- to carry out all voluntary physical activity
What are carbohydrates for in the body?
They are the main source for energy production in the body
Give 2 examples of complex carbs
Give 2 examples of simple carbs
Give an example of:
- the fat on meat
- sunflower oil
- olive oil
What are proteins for
growth and repair of the body
What are vitamins for
the functioning of muscles and nerves, as well as the growth of body tissue.
What are minerals for
to give strength and rigidity to the bones and assisting vital body functions
What is water for
transporting nutrients and removing waste
What is dietary fibre for
provides bulk to the faeces, cannot be digested
What is the recommendation of balance in diet
- 55-60% Carbs
- 25-30% Fats
- 10-15% Proteins
what is carboloading
People who are involved in endurance events in the lead up to the event will reduce their intake of carbs, and then just a few days before the event, they will consume lots of carbs. This works because the body will overcompensate, allowing more carbs to be stored next time
What is a high protein diet
A diet consisting of around 25% proteins. Used for intense growth and repair
What can nicotine do to the body
- constricts the blood vessels
- raises the heart rate
- speeds up metabolism
What can tar do to the body
- carries irritants that narrow the bronchioles of the lungs
- carries the carcinogens that can cause cancer
What can carbon monoxide do to the body
fills up the red blood cells which should be carrying oxygen.
What effects does alcohol have on performance
- loss of coordination
- loss of balance
- poor decision making
Long term effects of alcohol on health
- liver damage and disease
- cirrhosis of the liver
Effects of sleep on performance and health
- Sleep allows growth to occur
- Allows brain to recharge
- facilitates memory, learning and social processes
How is aerobic energy production determined?
the ability of the respiratory and circulatory systems to deliver nutrients and oxygen to the working muscles and the muscles to use this supply
How is anaerobic energy production determined
The ability of the liver and muscles to store fuel and the muscles to utilise this fuel
What is muscular power and how is it determined?
- being able to produce maximum force with speed in an explosive effort.
- the ability of the muscles to produce force with speed in an explosive effort
what is muscular speed and how is it determined
- being able to apply a small force at high speed
- the ability of the muscles to relax and contract quickly
What is continuous steady pace training
Continuous work at a steady rate. Once the heart rate reaches a desired intensity, it is maintained for a period of time.
What is fartlek training
Involves continuous training but includes working the body at high intensities for varying periods of time then followed by periods of recovery.
What is interval training
Involves alternating periods of high intensity and periods of recovery. The intensity, recovery time and repetitions are decided in advance
How can your MHR be calculated?
subtracting your age from 220 if you are a male and 226 if you're a female
What is circuit training
Involves working the body by doing a series of different exercises in a sequence.
What is a repetition
a short burst of work being performed once
What is a set
the amount of repetitions completed in a row before a significant rest period is taken
What is isotonic weight training and e.g.
- Involved muscles working against a resistance and movement of body parts takes place.
- eg bicep curls
What is isometric training and e.g.
- involves muscles working against a resistance but without movement of body parts.
- e.g. holding a press up position for a period of time
What is assault course type training
involves working the muscles to get you over and under objects, carry objects, jump, run etc.
What is a repetition max?
The maximum weight that can be lifted only once.
What is static flexibility training and how long should a stretch be held for
- Slowly stretching a muscle to its limit and then holding it in this position for a period of time
- 20-30 seconds
What is active/ballistic/dynamic flexibility training and how long should the exercise be done for
- Bouncing,jerking or swinging body parts in order to put the muscles in a stretched position and produce greater muscle length
- 20-60 seconds/reps
What are the 7 principles of training?
- progressive overload
- maintenance and reversibility
What is overload?
the body systems must be worked harder than they are being worked at present.
What is peaking?
the aim of training is to prepare your body so that it is at its peak level of physical fitness to allow you to perform at your very best on the day of a competition.
What is maintenance and reversibility
- if you want to maintain your level of physical fitness then you need to continue to train
- if you stop training then the biological adaptions produced by the body will be reversed.
What are the 4 phases of peaking
How can resting pulse rate be used to judge whether aerobic training is effective?
The resting heart rate would be lower than before the programme started then you know it is effective
How can recovery rate be used to judge whether aerobic training is effective
if the rate is quicker now than it was before the programme started then you know it is effective.
What does the mucous membrane do
traps dust and dirt, then s pushed to the back of the throat by the cilia where it is coughed up
What is important about the alveoli
they are the air sacs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place.
How does oxygen get into the blood
- The intercostal muscles contract, the diaphragm contracts, pulling itself down. The volume of the lungs increases and air pressure decreases so air moves in.
- After breathing in, the oxygen moves out of the alveoli through diffusion into the blood capillaries.
what is vital capacity
the maximum amount of air we can breathe out in one breath having breathed in as deeply as we can
what does the skeletal muscle do
moves limbs, except for biceps
what does the cardiac muscle do
moves blood through the body
what does the smooth muscle do
moves food around the digestive system
what do ligaments do
hold the bones in place
what is cartilage for
to act as a shock absorber, is smooth and slippery for friction free movement
what does synovial fluid do
oils the joint, allowing it work smoothly