1. A uniform system of equally spaced perpendicular and parallel lines superimposed onto aerial photographs, mosaics, maps, plan sheets and other representations of the earth’s surface and used to identify the positions of points.
  2. A system that used accelerometers, gyroscopes and a computer to sense the earth’s rotation and to orient itself with respect to north-south and east-west alignments as well as to the direction of gravity as it is moved from point to point.
    Inertial Surveying
  3. The result of a stereoscopic examination of aerial photographs, augmented by data and imagery from other sources, to obtain qualitative information about the terrain, cover and culture which may influence the location of a proposed highway.
  4. The original master reproducible sheet upon which the data gathered from the aerial photographs has been compiled.
    Manuscript or Base Map
  5. (1) A small-scale map showing the position and orientation of each map or contract plan sheet with respect to all the other map or contract plan sheets in a given project. 
    (2)  A map showing the locations and numbers of flight strips and photographs.  (3)  A small-scale map showing geodetic control and such data comparable to that found on larger-scale topographic quadrangle maps.
    Map, Index
  6. An orthographically projected rendering of existing land features produced with a stereoplotting instrument.
    Map, Photogrammetric
  7. A reproducible copy of the manuscript showing the shape and horizontal position of natural and man-made (cultural) features with no regard for elevation or measurable relief.
    Map, Planimetric
  8. A reproducible copy of the manuscript showing the shape and the horizontal and vertical position of natural and man-made features.  Elevations and measurable ground relief are usually delineated by contours and by spot elevations at prominent locations.
    Map, Topographic
  9. (also known as Micrometer).  A unit of length equal to one thousandth of a millimeter (0.001 MM).
  10. The stereoscopic image of an area produced by viewing the end lapping of two successive aerial photographs depicting the same ground area from two different positions of exposure and culminating in a three dimensional image when observed through a binocular viewer.
  11. A large sequential
    composite of individual photographs showing a continuous overview of a project
    site from beginning to end.

  12. Wherein each photograph was sealed and rectified relative to horizontal ground control and matched to adjacent photographs as closely as possible.
    Mosaic, Controlled
  13. The average of the heights of the sea surface at all stages of tide.  In photogrammetry, the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 is also referred to as Mean Sea Level.
    National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929
  14. (1) Photographic:  where a vertical line originating from the central point of exposure in the camera intersects the plan of the photograph.  The photographic nadir point coincides with the principal point of the photograph when that photograph is truly vertical. 
    (2)  Ground:  where that vertical line intersects the ground surface. 
    (3) Datum:  where that vertical line intersects the reference datum surface.
    Nadir Point
  15. The stereoscopic area between adjacent principal points along the flight line (breadth) and extending out sideways to the middle of the side laps (width).  The neat model represents the approximate mapping area of each pair of overlapping aerial photographs, (width) x (breadth).
    Neat Model
  16. State of New Jersey, Department of Transportation.
  17. A datum formed by using an ellipsoidal approximation of the planet surface, recalculated in 1988.
    North American Vertical Datum of 1988
  18. A camera lens has two such points:  an incidental (frontal) point and an emergent (rear) point.  These points lie on the optical axis of the lens and have the property that any light ray directed toward the incident point passes through the emergent point and emerges on the other side of the lens in a direction parallel to the direction of the incident ray.
    Nodal Points
  19. A photograph taken with the axis of the camera intentionally directed so that it is neither vertical nor horizontal.
    Oblique Photograph
  20. Characterized by perpendicular lines or right angles.
  21. A photographic reproduction in which each image has been extrapolated into its map-oriented (orthographic project) position.
  22. The amount by which two adjacent photographs show the same area.  This amount is usually expressed as a percentage of the total linear dimension of the photograph in the direction of the overlapping.

    In aerial photographs, the overlap within the flight line is called the end lap, and the overlap in adjacent parallel flight lines is called the side lap.
  23. Ground control points which are readily identifiable in aerial photographs.  Also referred to as Targets.
  24. (1)  An apparent change in position of one object relative to another when viewed from different positions. 
    (2)  The change in position of an image from one aerial photograph to the next as a result of the aircraft’s motion.
  25. The science of obtaining accurate measurements through the use of aerial photographs and stereoplotting equipment.
  26. A mosaic of individual adjacent photographs in their proper relative positions and re-photographed at a reduced scale with accompanying designations.
    Photographic Index
  27. A horizontal reference system consisting of equally spaced perpendicular and parallel grid lines used to locate and establish the horizontal position of any point.  Such positions are established relative to the point of origin and principal axes of this system.  The two primary systems employed in New Jersey are the National Geodetic Survey and the New Jersey State Plane Coordinate System (NJSPCS (1927)/NJSPCS (1988), and generally all first and second order accuracy traverses and triangulation stations should be tied into one of these systems unless the NJDOT approves otherwise.
    Plane Coordinate System
  28. The configuration of a surface and the horizontal positions of its natural and cultural features, depicted by means of lines, symbols and notations on a scaled map or plan sheet without regard to relief.
  29. The approved plans, profiles, typical sections, cross sections, shop drawings and supplemental drawings or exact reproductions thereof, which show the location, extent, layout and dimensions as well as the scope, character, and details of the work to be done.
  30. The degree of refinement with which an operation is performed.
  31. (1)  The intersection of two lines drawn through pairs of opposite fiducial marks on an aerial photograph. 
    (2)  The theoretical intersection of the camera’s line of sight axis, directed as vertically as possible, with the ground.
    Principal Point
  32. A photographically produced copy of a transparency.  Also called a contact print.
  33. A blue or black line copy of an original transparency used as a working copy to check the accuracy of the transparency and to perform related engineering work thereon.
    Print, Check
  34. A print made with a transparency in contact with a sensitized surface.
    Print, Contact
  35. A mylar-type, emulsion-coated material with a very low coefficient of expansion and extreme durability upon which a contact print may be produced.
    Print, Cronapaque
  36. An emulsion-coated, high grade paper used for the same purposes as the Cronapaque print, but available in single or double weights and in gloss, semi-matte or matte, and in resin-coated finishes.
    Print, Paper
  37. A print on which the scale has been changed from that of the original transparency by project printing.
    Print, Ratio
  38. The specific section of highway or public improvement together with all appurtenances and construction to be performed thereon under the Contract.
  39. The offer of a bidder, properly signed and guaranteed, on the prepared from furnished by the NJDOT, to perform the work and to furnish the labor and materials at the prices quoted.
  40. The production of a truly vertical photographic print from a tilted aerial negative
  41. The ratio of a distance on an aerial photograph, map or plan sheet to its actual counterpart on the ground.  Scale may be expressed as a ratio (1:24 000), a representative fraction (1/24 000), or an equivalence (1cm = 24 000cm).  The photographic scale is generally taken as “f/h” where “f” is the principal distance of the camera and “h” is the height of the camera above mean ground elevation in metric.
  42. A method of drafting which removes a pigment from a coated mylar as a result of tracing a line thereon.  Transparent lines are thus produced on the mylar from which, upon completion, prints can be readily made.
  43. The state of New Jersey Department of Transportation, Aerial Photogrammetric Specifications of October 1995, including latest revisions.
  44. Reported elevations of high, low and other prominent points.  The precise location is generally denoted by a small “x” and is thereby accompanied by the reported value of the elevation.
    Spot Elevations
  45. A comparator used in stereoscopically measuring images on adjacent aerial photographs.
  46. An instrument designed to produce stereoscopic images or models from which very precise topographic maps can be compiled by utilizing electromechanical components of the instrument.
  47. The science of producing three dimensional images by viewing the overlap area of two photographs through a binocular viewer.  The overlapping photographs are produced with the camera at a slightly different location or perspective of one exposure relative to the other.
  48. Triangulation is a procedure dealing with locating and establishing a position by means of bearings from two fixed points a known distance apart.  The application of this procedure in photogrammetry utilizes a stereoscopic plotting instrument to obtain successive orientations of adjacent photographs into a continuous strip.  The spatial solution for the extension of horizontal and vertical control using strip coordinates may be made by either graphical or computational procedures.  Also referred to as Aerial Analytical Triangulation.
  49. One or more surveys between basic or primary control points to establish any additional points needed to complete the required mapping.
    Supplemental Control
  50. A symmetrical pattern in
    high contrast to the background against which it is placed, it is used in
    locating and working with a specific control point from an aircraft and
    especially with its corresponding image in an aerial photograph.

Card Set