Vaccine post test 2

  1. How HIV works
    • 1. HIV infects CD4+ Tcells (helper cells)
    • 2. will lyse them during a productive infection
    • 3. HIV infects many other cells but doesn't lyse them
    • Natural killer cells
    • CD8+ killer T-cells
    • Macrophages
    • Cell of the nervous system
    • astrocytes
    • neurons,
    • glial cells
    • brain macrophages
    • B. Early course of infection: HIV infects macrophages
    • Later in the course of infection: HIV infects T-cells
  2. HIV Vaccine Development Difficulties
    • 1. Infects immune cells needed in an immune response
    • 2. gp120 forms a trimer for binding to CD4, and the cd4 changes shape
    • 3. HIV mutates rapidly
    • 4. The correlates of immunity and neutralization of HIV have yet to be fully identified. What is the appropriate Immune response?
    • 5. lack of good animal host
  3. Types of HIV
    • HIV mutates rapidly
    • Three distinct groups of HIV-1

    –M (Major) group

    –O (Outlier) group

    • –N (New) group
    • M group is further divided into clades or subtypes: A, B, C, D, F, G, H and K
  4. where types of hiv located
    • A. europe and china
    • B. aus, us, and south am.
    • C. china, india
    • A-K in africa
    • F in south america
  5. HIV vaccine goal
    Vaccines Goal: broadly neutralizing antibodies against the trimeric Env protein (gp120).
  6. Dengue virus
    • 1. emerging as worldwide problem since 1950s
    • 2. causes dengue hermorrhagic fever
  7. rate of infection: Dengue
    • 100 to 400 million people infected yearly,
    • with approximately 25,000 deaths annually
  8. dengue virus symptoms:
    • Severe headache
    • Severe eye pain (behind eyes)
    • Joint pain
    • Muscle and/or bone pain
    • Rash
    • Mild bleeding manifestation
    • Low white cell count
    • (after 2 weeks)
  9. severe symptoms of dengue virus
    • Severe abdominal pain or persistent vomiting
    • Red spots or patches on the skin
    • Bleeding from nose or gums
    • Vomiting blood
    • Black, tarry stools (feces, excrement)
    • Drowsiness or irritability
    • Pale, cold, or clammy skin
    • Difficulty breathing
  10. unique to dengue
    If infected a second time, by a heterotypical virus, (for example 1st infected by DENV 1 and 2nd infected by DENV 2) there will be a couple months of cross-protection, after which a heterotypical infection results in overt illness.
  11. how dengue virus made
    flavivirus (chimeric): yellow fever virus with replaced proteins of prM and E of Dengue

    1. then dna replication,
Card Set
Vaccine post test 2
lectures 12 onwards