art exam 3

  1. The Period of Enlightenment, also called the Modern Age or Age of Reason, was spawned by these three revolutions.
    • Industrial Revolution c. 1760
    • American Revolution c. 1776
    • &
    • French Revolution c. 1789
  2. This late 18th century style emulated classical Greek and Roman art but often with a dramatic flare, and promoted contemporary values especially in the context of the French Revolution. Example: David’s Oath of the Horatii
  3. This style in art and architecture dominated in the U.S. between the American Revolution and the Civil War. Example: Monticello
  4. This Romantic artist had a very pronounced desire to convey feelings, attitudes and emotions. He felt that art should represent the “sublime” which is defined as something that strikes fear and awe in the heart of the viewer vicariously. Example: Burning of the Houses of Lords and Commons
    Joseph Mallord William Turner
  5. This group of American Romantic landscape painters were founded by Thomas Cole in the 1830s. They had a very pronounced desire to reflect their own emotional states rather than to depict the landscape accurately. Example: The Oxbow
    The Hudson River School
  6. This style of art depicts ordinary existence without idealism, exoticism or nostalgia. Courbet’s The Stonebreakers is general considered the first painting of this style.
  7. Officially endorsed by the academies these annual exhibitions promoted artists, offered a venue for sale and appealed to collectors in 19th century France.
    The Salon
  8. These are the three requirements for an artist to be a French Impressionist
    • 1. They were officially a member of the group
    • 2. They rejected the Salon system
    • 3. They painted scenes of modern life
  9. These two schools of Postimpressionism were comprised of artists who were primarily concerned with form or meaning, respectively. Example: Seurat vs. Van Gogh
    Formalist vs. Expressive Schools of Postimpressionism
  10. This Postimpressionist artist was important because he advised the use of unnatural color for its expressive potential.
    Paul Gauguin
  11. This group of early 20th century artists freed color from its traditional role of describing the natural appearance of an object. Their work led to an increasing use of color as an independent expressive element. Example: Matisse, Harmony in Red.
    • The Fauves
    • (Les Fauves = “The Wild Beasts”)
  12. Die Brüche (The Bridge) was led by Kirchner and wanted to bridge the Germanic past with the modern experience. They wanted to represent social change. Angular simplifications, garish color contrasts and crude brushwork were part of their aesthetic. Der Blaüe Reiter (The Blue Rider) was led by Kandinsky and were concerned with spiritual rejuvenation. These two groups are part of this movement.
    German Expressionism
  13. The first form of Cubism analyzed form by breaking it down. The second form of Cubism analyzed form by building it up. Name the these two forms of Cubism and the year they were developed. Examples: Picasso’s Ma Jolie and Violin and Fruit.
    • Analytic (c. 1909)
    • and 
    • Synthetic (c. 1912)
  14. This group of artists were initially influenced by Cubism’s shifting planes and multiple vantage points but thought art should represent the speed of modern life. Example: Boccioni’s Unique Forms of Continuity in Space.
    The Futurists
  15. Duchamp’s Nude Descending a Staircase was probably influence by this type of photography.
  16. Post WWI this group of artists believed that the destruction and horrors of the war were caused by traditional and narrow-minded values. They wanted to protest this way of thinking and rejected most moral, social, political, and aesthetic values. They wanted to shock viewers into seeing the absurdity of the world’s social and political situation. Example: Duchamp’s ready-made, L.H.O.O.Q., 1919.
  17. This group of artists thought that art should make the intangible tangible. They were interested in Feud’s ideas about the subconscious and experimented with ways to tap into, or reveal, the subconscious mind including dream imagery and psychic automatism (a.k.a. automatic drawing). Example: Dali’s Persistence of Memory, 1931.
    The Surrealists
  18. Suprematism, which is part of Russian Modernism, began with Malevich who believed that Picasso didn’t go far enough. He was desperate to “free art from the ballast (weight) of objectivity” and wanted to represent pure feeling, which to him was a spiritual experience. Malevich’s work is important because it is the first time the world had seen totally ________________ art.
  19. Frida Kahlo reveals her life, heritage and personal traumas in her work. She was influenced by folk artists of her native country but often has many naturalistic details and dream-like fantasy elements. For this reason, she is often compared to Surrealists and criticized using psychological and expressive theories. However, she never considered herself a Surrealist and is categorized in this movement.
    Latin American Modernism
  20. This movement arose following the Great Depression of the 1930s and is based on the idea that artists in the U.S. could find their identity by focusing on subject matter that was uniquely American. For example, Hopper’s Nighthawks captures the gloomy and confined mood of Americans going into WWII, while American Gothic represents a stereotypical view of American rural culture.
    American Regionalism
  21. Abstract Expressionist, Jackson Pollock, emphasized spontaneous personal expression in large paintings that are abstract or nonrepresentational. His technique relies on physical movement which is very gestural, vigorous and sometimes involves dripping or pouring. This technique is called _____________.
  22. This is a term for painting that consists of large areas of color with no obvious structure, central focus or dynamic balance. These paintings are sometimes so large that they engulf the viewer so that the painting becomes an environment in itself. Example: Mark Rothko.
    Color-Field Painting
  23. By mid-20th century, most architects were still involved with this style of architecture. These architects were stimulated by the structural possibilities of modern materials including steel, glass and reinforced concrete. Example: Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill’s Lever House.
    The International Style
  24. Artists in this movement often simulate or use mass-production techniques in their art. Like the Dadaists before them, these artists wanted to challenge the definition of art and often made ironic statements about contemporary life. They wanted to achieve characteristics of anonymous mass-produced imagery such as advertising, food labels and comic books. Commercial art was a source of inspiration. Example: Hamilton, Warhol and Lichtenstein.
    Pop Art
  25. In the 1950s and 60s some artists began rejecting painting because they felt it lacked the solidity and presence of a 3D sculpture. Reacting against the Abstract Expressionists interest in personal expression, dynamism and emotion, these artists focused on the non-sensual, impersonal and geometric. This movement was basically a quest to see if art could still be art without representation, storytelling or personal feeling. Example: Donald Judd’s Untitled.
  26. 1. ____________ was based on rejecting tradition and breaking rules. 

    2. ____________ is characterized by pluralism, where a number of styles exist simultaneously, and generally focuses on commenting on the world.
    • 1. Modern Art
    • 2. Postmodern Art
  27. Though still influenced by the “glass box” International Style, Johnson and Burgee’s AT& T Building is considered to be the first Postmodernist building because it used historical styles in the design. Later postmodern architecture tends to resemble this other traditional medium.
  28. As Modernism came to an end, many painters in Europe and the U.S. began to revive expressive, personal styles in a movement known as _____________. These artists tended to use heavy brushwork where the subject is abstract but still recognizable. Example: Anselm Kiefer, Osiris and Isis, 1985.
  29. Among the first photographers to be called Postmodern, Cindy Sherman takes B&W shots of herself posing with props to resemble iconic moments in film. She picked scenes that featured stereotyped female characters from popular culture. Because she tends to focus on perceptions of women in social-culture, she is often considered a _____________________.
  30. Kiki Smith is a heroine to feminists because she modeled many full-body depictions of wounded women, particularly victims of domestic violence. She created Ice Man in 1995 after the discovery of a man from 6,000 BCE was discovered in the Alps. The material was dark like the dead man’s skin and the sculpture was hung slightly above eye level from its back. It became the object of study, a specimen on display, just as it was for the scientists who studied it. 

    This work is considered ___________ because the artist uses traditional materials to sculpt an image of an ancient man, yet criticizes how contemporary culture robs the historical past of its humanity
  31. Artists who work in an experimental or innovative Way, often opposing mainstream standards
  32. Art Governed by rules, especially works sanctioned by an official institution Academy or school
    Academic Art
  33. Painting characterized by openness of form in which shapes are defined by loose brushwork in light and dark color areas rather than by outline or contour
  34. A system of painting using tiny dots or points of colors. Developed by Georges Seurat in the 1880s
  35. A literary and artistic movement aimed at asserting the validity of subjective experience characterized by intense emotional excitement and depictions of powerful forces in nature exotic lifestyles danger and suffering
  36. Mid-19th century style of Courbet and others based on the idea that ordinary people and every day activities are worthy subjects of art
    Luncheon on the Grass
  37. A style of painting executed outdoors aiming to capture the light and mood of a particular moment and the transitory effects of light and color
  38. style of painting introduced in Paris and the early 20th century characterized by areas of bright contrasting color and simplified shapes
  39. An art style developed in Paris by Picasso and Braque beginning in 1907, based on the simultaneous presentation of multiple views disintegration and geometric reconstruction of subjects in flattened, ambiguous pictorial space
  40. A group movement originating in Italy in 1909 that celebrated both natural and mechanical motion and speed

    Unique Forms of Continuty in space
  41. A concept pioneered by Dadaist Marcel Duchamp in which a common manufactured object is signed by artist and thereby turned into an artwork
  42. A movement it art and literature founded In Switzerland in the early 20th century which ridiculed contemporary culture and conventional art
  43. A movement in literature and the visual arts that developed in the mid-1920s based on revealing the Unconscious mind in dream images and the fantastic
  44. A socially and politically committed form of art that became common in many countries between the two world wars and which included a retreat from the radical innovations of modern Art in the desire to communicate more readily with the public about social causes and issues
    Social realism
  45. An art movement primarily in painting that originated in the United States in the 1940s in which artist worked in many different styles that emphasize spontaneous personal expression
    Abstract expressionism
  46. A nonrepresentational style of sculpture and painting that came to prominence in the middle be late 1960s usually severely restricted in the use of visual elements and often consisting of simple geometric shapes or masses
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art exam 3
art exam