Bio Bases Quiz 1

  1. What is the weight of the human brain?
    3 - 3.5 lbs or 14-1600 grams
  2. How many neurons are there in a human brain?
    • 100 billion in the adult brain
    • 150 billion at birth
  3. Define synapse
    the functional connection between neurons
  4. Define nerves
    bundles of axons in the PNS
  5. Define tracts
    bundles of axons in the CNS up/down
  6. Define fasciculi
    anterior - posterior tracts
  7. Define commissures
    large left - right tracts
  8. Define stria
    bands of axons connecting nuclei
  9. Define nuclei
    groups of neuron bodies in the CNS
  10. Define ganglia
    groups of neuron bodies in the PNS
  11. Theories of function: Localizationist
    • different parts of the cortex are developed to deliver a specific function - they are specialized to do one thing very well and by interacting, thoughts, feelings, and behaviors arise.
    • Deficits are specific to areas as well
  12. Theories of function: Equipotentiality
    • the idea that all parts of the brain contribute to all thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
    • Deficits are related more to the amount of general area of damage
  13. Theories of function: Interconnectivity
    How different brain areas related, affect, and communicate with each other that better explains thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
  14. Define anterior
    toward the front
  15. Define posterior
    toward the rear
  16. Define lateral toward the side
  17. Define medial
    toward the midline
  18. Define sagittal
    the plane of the midline
  19. Define transverse/axial
    the plane from top - down
  20. Define frontal/coronal
    the plane from the face
  21. Define ventral
    toward the belly or under surface
  22. Define dorsal
    toward the back or upper surface
  23. Define proximal
    closer to source or time
  24. Define distal
    farther from source or time
  25. Define pruning
    Neural connections that are not relevant or adaptable or terminated and reabsorbed
  26. brain connectivity is functionally organized based on what?
    • environmental demands
    • language
    • culture
    • etc...
  27. when does the zygote develop into an embryo
    within 2 weeks of fertilization
  28. at what age does synaptogenisis kick into full gear?
    0-3 months
  29. Define neurons
    Specialized cells for receiving, processing, and transmitting information.
  30. Define glial cells
    Cells that are smaller than neurons, make up 90% of the cells in the brain, and are designed to feed, protect, structure, insulate, and much more
  31. Define schwann cells
    Cells that are designed to create myelin for neurons in the PNS.
  32. Define oligodendrocytes
    Cells that are designed to create myelin for neurons in the CNS.
  33. Define astrocytes
    Cells that are designed to provide energy to neurons by connecting blood supply and are also involved in learning and organizational processes.
  34. Define microglia
    Cells that are designed to be the brain's defense network.
  35. Define ependymal cells
    Cells that form a lining around clusters of neurons, the surface of the cortex, and the lining of the ventricles that are designed to keep cerebrospinal fluid away from actual neuronal networks.
  36. Define debdrites
    The part of a neuron that is information receiving and extends from the soma
  37. Define soma
    This is the cell body, which receives and processes information and well as maintains cellular metabolism and repair.
  38. Define hillock
    This is the junction of the cell body and axon that determines whether or not the axon fires.
  39. Define axon
    This is the information transmitting process that extends to other neurons.
  40. Define Bouton
    These are pre-synaptic structures fond at the end of axons that store and control neurotransmitters.
  41. What is the purpose of the sodium/ potassium pump?
    Once an axon has fired it is necessary for it recharge before it can fire again. This is where the sodium/potassium pumps come into play.  The job of these pumps is to restore the sodium/potassium balance.  Typically, the pump pushes out three Na+ and pulls in two K+.
  42. All neural information is basically what?
    ions moving across the membrane
  43. Dendritic potentials are ______ and _______
    • local
    • graded in intensity 
    • the more stimulation received the bigger the response
    • response does not travel.
  44. Axonal potentials are _______ and _______
    • self-propagating
    • all or nothing
    • they travel down the axon and either occur or don't
  45. the speed, conduction, and size of action potentials is determined by what?
    • diameter of the axon
    • myelination
  46. What is the energy source used by sodium/potassium pumps?
  47. Define myelin
    a fatty substance that insulates the axon from the extracellular space
  48. What are the gaps in the myelin sheath called?
    Nodes of Ranvier
  49. what is the speed of conduction for an unmyelinated axon?
    10 meters per second
  50. what determines how information is interpreted?
    which parts of the brain are activated by neuronal activity
  51. What determines the intensity of information?
    • the frequency of axonal firing
    • more frequent = more intense
  52. communication between direct electrical synapses are called what?
  53. communication between chemical synapses is called what?
    neurotransmitter based
Card Set
Bio Bases Quiz 1
Bio Bases Quiz 1