Cicerone study pt1

  1. How does the 3 tier system work?
    Brewers and importers sell to wholesalers. Wholesalers sell to both on- and off- premises retailers. On- and off-presises retailers sell to consumers.
  2. In some states who have been granted exceptions to the three-tier system?
    Brewpubs that both brew and retail to consumers, and breweries that brew and sell directly to retailers and consumers.
  3. Who pays the Federal Excise Tax that is levied on beer?
  4. Who pays the State Excise Tax levied on beer?
  5. Who pays the sales taxes and other locally required fees levied on beer?
  6. How can you assess a beer shipments physical condition and age?
    • Date code if available (Bottling/packaging date, and best by date)
    • Physical condition of container (Not dented or broken, No signs of leakage or box weakness)
    • Temperature (Ideally beer will still be cool when it reaches the retailer - the flavor of beer that is worm or hot to the touch may have changed substantially during shipment)
  7. What are the effects of Alcohol?
    • Absorption and elimination.
    • Physical and behavioral indicators.
  8. What are responsible serving practices involving ABV?
    • Provide accurate ABV information to consumers.
    • Adjust serving size based on ABV.
  9. How long should you store beer before serving?
    You should serve beer ASAP. Beer is best consumed fresh
  10. When is a beer ready to drink after being released from the brewery?
    Right away
  11. When is it appropriate to age a beer?
    A very few strong or intensely flavored beers may age in ways that make them interesting to drink months or years later if properly cellared
  12. What actions can wholesalers and retailers take to ensure that freshness is preserved?
    • Rotate inventory
    • Store beer properly - Refrigerate, Keep beer out of sunlight and fluorescent light
    • Serve beer properly
  13. Non-pasteurized draft beer is best if served by?
    45-60 days (refrigerated)
  14. Pasteurized draft beer is best if served by?
    90-120 days (refrigerated)
  15. Refrigerated storage is best for all beers at all times.
    This is not a question. It just is.
  16. What causes skunking in beer?
    Sunlight and fluorescent light
  17. How much protection does a bottle give from skunking?
    • Brown glass, 98%
    • Green glass, 20%
    • Clear glass, 0%
  18. How long does it take for a beer to skunk when exposed to light?
    a few minutes
  19. Draft beer must be served using what 2 gasses?
    CO2 (75%) nitrogen (25%)
  20. What should never be used in place of nitrogen? And what is the exception to this rule?
    • Compressed air.
    • The exception would be bag-in-box or "KeyKeg" style kegs that separate the applied gas from the beer with a flexible plastic barrier.
  21. A party pump limits the flavor stability of beer to how long? And why?
    • Less than 1 day
    • BecauseĀ  oxygen and airborne contaminants are put in contact with the beer
  22. Why is CO2 applied to draft beer?
    To maintain carbonation
  23. Each beer is carbonated to a specific value (temperature, pressure, and gas blend). Who provides the retailer with value?
    Brewer or brand owner.
  24. Movement of beer to tap must overcome what system resistance?
    • Friction in lines
    • Change in elevation
    • Possible variable resistance device on tap
  25. Where does the force needed overcome system resistance in draft beer come from?
    • Total gas pressure applied to keg
    • Beer pumps
  26. On-premises draft systems and their maintenance
    Anatomy of a standard keg
    • a. Common commercial volumes
    • b. Awareness of variety in keg valve systems/coupler types
    • c. Internal structure of the keg
  27. On-premises draft systems and their maintenance
    Pressure side components, anatomy and function
    • a. Gas sources
    • b. Cylinder/bulk tank
    • c. Nitrogen generator
    • d. Air compressor, Never use with traditional keg, May be used "bag-in-ball" type kegs
    • e. Gas blender
    • f. Primary and secondary regulators
    • g. Gas line
    • h. Couplers
  28. On-premises draft systems and their maintenance
    Beer side components, anatomy and function
    • a. Couplers
    • b. Jumper line
    • c. FOB dtectors
    • d. Wall brackets
    • e. Trunk line (an insulated bundle of beer line and glycol line)
    • f. Power packs (glycol chillers)
    • g. Beer line (vinyl, barrier, stainless, ect.)
    • h. Draft tower
    • i. Beer faucets, Standard (rear shutoff) faucet, Nitro faucet
  29. On-premises draft systems and their maintenance
    Types of US draft systems
    • a. Direct draw
    • b. Air-cooled
    • c. Glycol-cooled
  30. On-premises draft systems and their maintenance
    Draft system design
    a. System balanc, Dynamic resistance, static resistance
  31. On-premises draft systems and their maintenance
    Draft system operation
    • a. Standard temperature of 38 degrees F (3 degrees C)
    • b. Troubleshooting (for each system type), No beer at faucet, Beer foaming, Flat beer, Cloudy beer
  32. On-premises draft systems and their maintenance
    Draft system maintenance
    • a. Cleaning of lines, faucets, couplers, and FOBs
    • b. Goals of cleaning
    • c. Use proper personal protective equipment (gloves, goggles, rubber apron)
    • d. Criteria for proper cleaning, Frequency, Cleaner type, Concentration, Temperature, Method and contact time, Flow rate (for dynamic cleaning)
    • e. Manual cleaning of components
    • f. Cleaning system components
    • g. Operation of line cleaning process
    • h. Safety issues: operator, consumer
  33. What is the Maillard (My-ard) Reaction? (also called nonenzymatic browning)
    It's the term used to collectively describe the chemistry of browning when heated.
  34. Malt browning is expressed how in the U.S.?
    Degrees Lovibond
  35. Malt browning is expressed how in Europe?
    EBC units
  36. What does EBC stand for?
    European Brewery Convention
  37. How many degrees Lovibond = 1 EBC unit?
    1 EBC unit = 1.97 degrees Lovibond
  38. Off flavor that causes fruity, banana flavor?
    Isoamyl acetate
  39. What causes isoamyl acertate in beer?
    • Overly warm fermentation
    • Choice of yeast strain prone to esters
  40. Off flavor that causes buttery popcorn / butterscotch flavor and an oily slick mouthfeel?
    Diacetyl, same butter flavor in microwave popcorn
  41. What causes diacetyl in beer?
    • Brewing - stressed yeast, premature packaging.
    • Bacterial infection (e.g. dirty draught lines)
  42. Off flavor that causes green apple flavor?
  43. What causes acetaldehyde in beer?
    • Brewing - short fermentation, premature packaging
    • Storage - bacterial spoilage or oxidation
    • (Can be detected in Bud Light)
  44. Off flavor that causes creme corn flavor?
    DMS (dimethyl sulphide)
  45. What causes DMS in beer?
    • Flawed brewing process (i.e. covered boil)
    • Bacterial infection
  46. Is DMS ever appropriate?
    IN cream ales and American lagers
  47. Off flavor that causes papery/cardboard?
    Oxidized (trans-2-nonenal)
  48. What causes oxidation in beer?
    • Brewing/packaging: inappropriate exposure to air
    • Old/stale beer
  49. What off flavor causes a "Corona" flavor?
    Skunky/Lightstruck (mercaptan)
  50. What causes skunking in beer?
    • Exposure of hop oils to (blue) light, including sunlight
    • Accelerated by clear/grean bottles, lighted storage
  51. How can you mask skunk flavors?
  52. What off flavor causes plastic, sour, stale, fruity/juicy, ect?
    Infection (undesirable bacteria)
  53. What causes infection in beer?
    • Dirty draught lines
    • Poor sanitation during brewing, packaging, service
  54. How should you select the appropriate size glassware?
    • Based on style and alcohol content (stronger beers, smaller glass)
    • Provide room for an appropriately sized head
  55. How should you select the appropriate shape glassware?
    • Cultural and historical traditions
    • Aesthetics of presentation
    • Flavor and aroma effects
  56. How should you select the appropriate brand glassware?
    Branded glasses matched to beer
  57. Explain the 3 sink glass cleaning procedure
    • 1. Empty glass into open drain
    • 2. Wash with non-petroleum based (sudless) soap and brush
    • 3. Rinse in cold water, heel in, heel out
    • 4. Rinse in sanitizer, heel in, heel out
    • 5. Dry inverted on rack so air circulates inside
    • 6. Rinse with cold water immediately before dispense
  58. Explain the glass cleaning procedure of a glass washing machine
    • 1. Use machine dedicated to beer glassware ONLY (do not clean dishes or glassware with food or dairy residue)
    • 2. Use correct detergent and sanitizer - check concentrations daily or follow detergent and sanitizer supplier recommendations
    • 3. Water temperature should range between 130 and 140 degrees F (54-60 C) High temperature machines designed to operate at 180 F (82 C) may be used in place of chemical sanitizers (though local health departments may have additional requirements
    • 4. Maintain washer to assure proper water flow through each nozzle and washer arm
    • 5. Regularly service machine following maufacturer's guidelines to ensure proper operation
  59. How can you check if an empty glass is "beer clean"?
    • Sheeting (wet glass, empty, water should sheet off of glass evenly; formation of droplets or webbing indicates not beer clean)
    • Salt test (wet glass, sprinkle salt throughout; places where salt does not adhere are no beer clean
  60. How can you check if a glass containing beer is "beer clean"?
    • Head size, shape, retention
    • Bubbles clinging to sides of glass (in liquid beer) indicate not beer clean
    • During consumption, lace will cling to the side of a beer clean glass following each sip
Card Set
Cicerone study pt1
This will help to study for Cicerone Certification