Electrocardiology and physiology

  1. intrinsic rate of the SA node
  2. intrinsic rate of the AV node
  3. the p wave represents what part of the cardiac cycle?
    atrial depolarization
  4. what part of the cardiac cycle is represented by the QRS complex
    ventricular depolarization
  5. what part of the cardiac cycle is represented by the T wave?
    ventricular repolarization
  6. Which nerve(s) innervate only the sinus and atrioventricular nodes?
    vagus nerve
  7. Which nerve(s) innervate all parts of the heart?
  8. what ECG findings are expected with sinoatrial block?
    • regular pauses of the p wave
    • Also known as sinus exit block
  9. what ECG irregularities/heart conditions can be benign
    • sinoatrial block,
    • Wenckebach AV block,
  10. what ECG findings are expected with 1st degree AV block?
    PR interval > 0.2 seconds (one big box)
  11. three names for two types of second degree AV block
    • Mobitz 1 = Wenckebach = 2:1 or less,
    • Mobitz 2 = 2:1 AV block or more
  12. what ECG findings are expected with Wenckebach/Mobitz 1 second degree atrioventricular block?
    repeating pattern where p wave conduction progressively slows, followed by a missing QRS complex
  13. is a 2:1 AV block Mobitz 1 or 2?
    • can be either:
    • Mobitz 1 is a blockage above the AV node,
    • Mobitz 2 is a blockage below the AV node
  14. how to determine if 2:1 AV block is Wenckebach or Mobitz 2
    • If PR interval is lengthened but the QRS is normal, probably Wenckebach. 
    • If PR interval is normal, but the QRS is widened, probably Mobitz
  15. what ECG findings are expected with third degree atrioventricular block?
    P waves and QRS complexes are both regular, but not synchronized
  16. what ECG findings are expected with right bundle branch block?
    • wide QRS in a supraventricular rhythm,
    • wide or "slurred" S waves in Leads I and V6
  17. what ECG findings are expected with left bundle branch block?
    • Poor R wave in V1-3,
    • Broad R wave in V5-6
  18. Parasystolic
    Entrance block of automaticity focus: paces but cannot be overdrive-suppressed
  19. What is a common rhythm in COPD patients?
    Multifocal atrial tachycardia
  20. Vagal maneuver can convert _____ to NSR
  21. By slowing AV node conduction, vagal maneuver can help diagnose which two heart conditions?
    Atrial flutter and 2:1 AV block
  22. Bachmann’s bundle innervates what
    the left atrium
  23. The QT interval is considered normal if...
    At normal rate, it is less than half the width of the R to R interval
  24. Stokes-Adams Syndrome is due to...
    Syncope due to low blood flow to the brain due to low pace rate of ventricular escape rhythm. Monitor airway.
  25. A too-tall T wave can mask what?
    A P’ wave from a premature atrial beat.
  26. A ventricular focus can be triggered by what?
    Low oxygen, low potassium, hypovolemia
  27. P’ wave indicates what?
    Irregularity comes from atrial focus
  28. change in QRS complex indicates what?
    Change in ventricular conduction
  29. Paroxysmal atrial tachycardia with 2:1 AV block indicates what?
    Digitalis excess or toxicity
  30. Digitalis _______ the AV node
  31. PAT with block should be treated with what?
    Digitalis antibodies or IV potassium
  32. paroxysmal tachycardia with widened QRS complexes indicates what?
    Junctional origin: left ventricle is depolarized before the right ventricle
  33. “Supraventricular tachycardia” includes _____ and ________ and implies________
    paroxysmal is implied. SVT can be used to indicate both paroxysmal atrial tachycardia and paroxysmal junctional tachycardia.
  34. Factors triggering ventricular irritability
    • low O2, 
    • Low K+,
    • MVP,
    • myocarditis
  35. Names for ventricular tachycardia
    • Paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia,
    • PVT,
    • VT,
    • V-tach
  36. What EKG finding confirms the diagnosis of PVT?
    • fusion beat: normal QRS complex blended with PVC-like complex, or
    • capture beat: normal QRS among VT run
  37. differentiate wide QRS from SVT versus that from VT
    • QRS > 0.14 sec: VT 
    • QRS < 0.14 sec: SVT
  38. Image Upload 1
  39. Image Upload 2
    V fib
  40. Image Upload 3
    A fib
  41. Image Upload 4
    Atrial flutter
  42. Image Upload 5
    Ventricular flutter
  43. Image Upload 6
  44. Deep Q wave indicates what?
  45. inverted p wave indicates what
    retrograde depolarization of atria
  46. inverted t wave indicates what?
  47. A depressed ST segment indicates what?
    Decreased coronary flow
  48. elevated ST segment indicates what?
    Acute injury or pericarditis
  49. Wide QRS complex indicates what?
    Aberrant ventricular contraction; possibly BBB
  50. Which leads are the inferior leads
    II, III, AVF
  51. which leads are the lateral leads
    I and AVL
  52. What ECG findings are expected with right axis deviation
    Negative QRS complex in Lead I
  53. Sinus rhythm
    • Constant p-p and R-R intervals
    • p waves upright in I, II, AVF
    • Narrow QRS
    • P:QRS ratio 1:1
    • P-R interval normal and constant
  54. QRS should be less than
    3 boxes
  55. Junctional arrhythmiapwavewill be inverted in leads ...
    I, II, AVF
  56. EKG findings expected in LVH
    • R in V5/6 + S in V1 > 35 mm
    • OR
    • R> 13 mm in avL
  57. Expected ECG findings for RVH
    RAD and R wave >7mm in V1
  58. Expected ekg findings for right atrial enlargement
    p wave >2.5 mm in any lead
  59. Expected ECG findings for hyperkalemia
    Bradycardia, flattening, and loss of p waves
Card Set
Electrocardiology and physiology
EKG and electrophysiology of the heart