ESS 2.4

  1. What are Biomes?
    Collections of ecosystems sharing similar climatic conditions.
  2. What are the 5 main biomes?
    Aquatic, forest, grassland, desert, tundra.
  3. What are the three abiotic factors affecting biome structure, function and location?
    • Precipitation
    • Insolation
    • Temperature
    • Rate of photosynthesis and productivity
  4. What is the tricellular model?
    • Explains differences in atmosphere pressure belts, temperature and precipitation.
    • 0 to 30 is hadley
    • 30 to 60 is ferrel
    • 60 to 90 is polar cell
    • 30 is desert
    • 60 degree is temperate forest
    • 0 is tropical rainforest
  5. What are the qualities of a tropical rainforest biome?
    • Constant high temperature
    • High rainfall
    • Near the equator, little seasonal variation between the tropic of capricorn and cancer
    • High levels of biodiversity and NPP
    • Soil is low in nutrients
    • Evergreen
  6. What are the qualities of temperate forests?
    • Between 40-60 N
    • Cold winters and warm summers
    • Evergreen (needles or waxy) trees or deciduous trees (sheds its leaves)
    • NPP is lower than tropical but the second highest
    • Less biodiversity due to the forests being made one species tops 6 species
    • But the rainforests have very high dense canopies, there‚Äôs grass and ferns
  7. What are the qualities of deserts?
    • 30 N
    • Water is limiting factor , NPP is very low
    • Xerophytic adaptations, low decomposition due to low water, high salinity, low leeching
    • Roots either deep or extended on surface
  8. What are the qualities of tundra?
    • High latitude, low insolation
    • Water is ice, sunlight is low, NPP low
    • Decomposition is slow, nutrition is low, biodiversity is low
    • Larger animals for energy efficiency
    • formed due to the retreat of glaciers
    • permafrost
  9. What is zonation?
    • Changes in community along an environmental gradient due to factors such as changes in latitude, altitude, tidal level, distance from shore or coverage by water
    • Biome distribution
    • Patterns in an ecosystem (bands of vegetation)
    • Distance from the sea on a rocky shore
    • Changes in ecosystems up a mountain
  10. What is succession?
    • Is the process of change over time in an ecosystem involving
    • pioneer, intermediate, climax communities
  11. What is primary succession?
    Occurs on a previously uncolonized substrate
  12. What is secondary succession?
    • Occurs in places where a previous community has been destroyed
    • Due to soil bank
  13. Zonation on a rocky shore?
    • Stress of dehydration increases as we get away from the shore
    • Stress of temperature increases as we get away from shore
    • Stress from wave action increases as we get towards the shore
  14. Zonation on a mountain?
    • As temperature decreases, decomposition is slower and the release of nutrients is less overall
    • Temperature is colder
    • Atmospheric pressure is less
    • Precipitation is more
    • Insolation is more
  15. What is Sere?
    • The change in communities from the earliest community to the final community
    • A natural succession of plant or animal communities, especially series from uncolonized habitat to the appropriate climax vegetation.
  16. What is Seral Stage?
    • The series of relatively transitional plant communities that develop during ecological succession from base ground to climax community.
    • What is a pioneer community?
    • The first stage of ecological succession, species that can live in difficult conditions
    • Lichen, moss
  17. What is intermediate community?
    • Several stages between pioneer and climax communities
    • (herbaceous plants, grasses, dandelions)
  18. What is a climax community?
    Final stage of succession, more stable and in equilibrium
  19. What does an ecosystem in equilibrium look like?
    • High biodiversity
    • Complex food chains
    • P/R is close to 1
    • NPP is balances
    • Steady state equilibrium
    • Rich soil
  20. What are the 2 types of succession depending on the type of environment?
    • Xerosere: dry habitat
    • Lithosere: bare rock
    • Hydrosere: freshwater habitat
  21. List Succession pls
    • Colonization: lichen and moss weather rock and produce dead material
    • Establishment: growth of moss, further weathering, beginning of soil formation, growth of small plants such as grasses and plants,
    • Competition: growth of small plants, larger herbaceous plants grow, shrubs, small trees
    • Stabilization + Climax
  22. List succession with examples:
    • Lichen, Moss (creates shallow soil, photosynthesis)
    • Intermediate: Grass (reduces erosion, increases photosynthesis, reduce wind, effective in absorbing water)
    • Intermediate: Herbaceous plants (dandelions) wind dispersed seeds, more growth, competitions
    • Intermediate: Shrubs (gorse)
    • Climax: Trees (kills shrubs and everything, generate organic matter, soil traps water and allows for plants in later stages of succession)
  23. Explain Climax Communities:
    • There is no one climax communities but rather a set of alternative stable states for an ecosystem
    • Nutrient cycles are closed
    • Greater biomass
    • More favorable soil conditions
    • Better sou structure (greater water retention and aeration, deeper soil with more nutrients)
    • Plants are taller and live longer
    • Greater community complexity
    • Greater habitat diversity
  24. Which is faster, secondary or primary succession?
    Secondary succession
  25. What is a tipping point?
    • Least amount of change needed to change the equilibrium point
    • It is affected by
    • Diversity
    • Size of storages in systems
    • Variety of nutrients and energy pathways
  26. NPP and GPP in early and late succession?
    • GPP increases
    • NPP decreases
  27. What happens to P/R throughout succession?
    Approaches 1
  28. Nutrient conversion in early and late succession?
    • Closed systems in late succession
    • Open systems in early succession
  29. Niches in early and late succession?
    Realized niches get smaller throughout succession due to less competition
  30. Human Influence on Succession?
    • Pollution
    • Livestock
    • Agriculture
    • Trampling
    • Fire
    • Introduction of species that are not native to the environment
  31. What is Plagiosere or Plagioclimax: arrested stage of succession
  32. What does it mean if P/R is more than 1?
  33. What does it mean if P/R is less than 1?
    Depletion of biomass
  34. J curve or S curve curve?
    • J curve is for r strategists
    • S curve for K strategists
  35. What are k strategists?
    • Few progeny
    • Stable environment
    • Energy efficient
    • Investment in progeny
    • More intelligent
    • More evolved
    • Larger
    • Live for longer
    • Stronger
    • Larger litter
    • Age of reproduction is higher
    • Maturation speed is low
  36. What are r strategist?
    • Bacteria
    • Small animals
    • Unstable environments
    • More progeny
    • Little investment
  37. What are the properties of Grasslands?
    • Not enough precipitation for forests, not little enough for deserts
    • Temperate grasslands: great plains, russian steppes
    • Tropical grasslands: savannas of east africa
    • High diversity, low productivity (grass)
    • With low humidity comes fluctuating temperature
    • Decomposition rate is low
  38. What are the properties of tropical coral reefs?
    • High biodiversity, near the equator, warm water all year long
    • Polyps take CO2 from the water Ca from seawater and from CaCO2 skeletons to live with symbiotic algae
  39. What are the properties of Hydrothermal vents?
    • Super heated metal laden fluids
    • Chemosynthetic bacteria and polychaete worms can live
    • Hydrogen sulfide is used for chemosynthesis
    • Biodiversity is low
  40. Survivorship curves?
    • K strategists high
    • R strategist low
    • Depends on competition
    • Depends on reproductive strategy and
    • Predatory relationships
  41. What are the impacts of climate change?
    • Relocation due to flooding or storms
    • Shortage or oversupply of water
    • Shift of agriculture to the poles, desertification
    • Increase of flooding, sea levels, oceans becoming warmer
Card Set
ESS 2.4