1. Group of similarly constructed organisms that share common genes
  2. Members of a species living in a particular area
  3. Structures, physiology, and behavior that make an organism suited to its environment
  4. Structures of similar construction due to a common ancestor
  5. Remains or evidence of some organism that lived long ago
  6. The modern gorilla; shares a common ancestor with humans (Species epithet)
    Gorilla gorilla
  7. A relatively small, humanlike organism that had small, pointed canine teeth, an elongated face, and was adapted for bipedalism (Genus)
  8. A human ancestor characterized by an upright posture, a sloping forehead, a large brow ridge, a thick skull and a larger braincase (species epithet)
    Homo erectus
  9. Modern humans, characterized by a vertical forehead, small brow ridge, thin skulls, and a larger braincase (species epithet)
    Homo sapiens
  10. How many bones are in the human skull?
    22 Bones
  11. Extent to which the face and jaws protrude forward when viewed from the side
  12. Mass of bone over the eye sockets, supports the upper facial skeleton against forces produced by chewing
    Brow Ridge
  13. Thin ridge of bone atop and down the middle of the braincase
    Sagittal crest
  14. Large opening in the base of the skull through which the spinal cord passes
    Foramen magnum
  15. In nonhuman primates, the gap in the teeth corresponding to the canines of the opposite jaw
    Canine diasteme
  16. Between which teeth does the gap occur? Why are these gaps essential in nonhuman primates?
    • Incisors and canines
    • B/c the teeth are pointed and the canines of the opposite side fit in the gap
  17. Why is the canine diastema absent in humans?
    Canine teeth aren't pointed
  18. Sagitall Crest (Apes v. Humans)
    • Ape: Present
    • Humans: Greatly Reduced
  19. Brow Ridge (Apes v. Humans)
    • Apes: Prominent
    • Humans: Internalized
  20. Foramen Magnum (Apes v. Humans)
    • Apes: towards rear
    • Humans: posterior position
  21. Prognathism (Apes v. Humans)
    • Apes: More
    • Humans: very little
  22. Canines (Apes v. Humans)
    • Apes: long and pointed
    • Humans: Little difference
  23. Canine diastema (Apes v Humans)
    • Apes: Present
    • Humans: Not present
  24. Incisors (Apes v. Humans)
    • Apes: Bigger and Rounder
    • Humans: Small and vertical
  25. Chin (Apes v. Humans)
    • Apes: Not Present
    • Humans: Present
  26. Arrangement of teeth (Apes v. Humans)
    • Apes: Straight
    • Humans: Curved
  27. The theory that the number of amino acid changes between organisms is proportional to the length of time since two organisms began evolving separately from a common ancestor
    Molecular Clock Theory
  28. Carrier of electrons in the electron transport chain found in mitochondria and chloroplasts
    Cytochrome c
  29. Proteins that react with foreign proteins
  30. If a serum is closely related to humans, how much precipitate will form?
    More precipitate
  31. Which animal is most closely related to humans- the cow or the chimpanzee?
  32. What are sutures?
    Wavy lines where the bones fit together
  33. Because a gorillas face and jaw protrude more forward than humans, they are said to exhibit_?
  34. Wha is the function of the brow ridge?
    Supports the upper face against the forces of chewing
  35. What is a sagittal crest usually associated with?
    Small braincase and powerful jaws
  36. Which of the following structures reflects the posture of the body and the pattern of movement in hominoids?
    Foramen magnum
  37. What is a typical characteristic of a female skull?
    Smaller Braincase
  38. Name one of Darwin's assumptions that was tested in the EvoDots program
    Evolution is dependent on variation of characteristics
  39. When did the first vascular plants appear? How many million years ago was this?
    • Paleozoic era and the Silurian period
    • 443.7-416 mya
  40. When did angiosperm (flowering plant) diversity occur? How many million years ago?
    • Mesozoic era and Cretaceous period
    • 145.5- 65.5 mya
  41. During what period did the trilobites appear?
  42. When did the trilobites become extinct? How many million years ago was this?
    • End of Permian 
    • 240 mya
  43. During what period did the insects first appear? How many million years ago was this?
    • Devonian
    • 416- 359.2 mya
  44. Did organisms first appear in the sea or on land?
    The sea
  45. Did invertebrates evolve before vertebrates?
  46. Did cone-bearing plants evolve before flowering plants?
  47. Name a characteristic that differentiates a synapsid reptile like Bathygnathus from the dinosaurs that followed later
    Single temporal skull
Card Set