1. Four types of animal tissue
    • Epithelium
    • Connective
    • Muscle
    • Nervous
  2. Tissue that covers a surface and functions in protection, transport and absorption
    Epithelium tissue
  3. What is a function of the connective tissue
    Binds and supports
  4. What does muscle tissue do?
  5. What is a function of the nervous tissue?
    Conducts impulses
  6. What is the outermost cell shape of epithelium? (3)
    • Squamous (Flat)
    • Cuboidal (cube shaped)
    • Columnar (columns)
  7. How many cell layers are in epithelium? (3)
    • Simple (1 layer)
    • Stratified (2+ layers)
    • Pseudo stratified (Appears layered but all cells touch the basement membrane)
  8. What cell type does the lung alveoli have?
    Simple squamous epithelium
  9. What cell type does the kidney have? What is it's main function?
    • Cuboidal epithelium
    • Produces urine
  10. What cell type is the small intestine
    Simple columnar epithelium
  11. Special columnar cells filled with mucus, found in the small intestine
    Goblet cells
  12. Function of the brush border in small intestine
    Absorbs nutrients
  13. What kind of cells does the trachea have? What is it's main function?
    • Psuedostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
    • Conveys air to and from lungs
  14. Function of cilia in the trachea
    Sweep mucous and trapped bacteria in the trachea into you throat
  15. What cells make up the esophagus? What two structures does it connect?
    • Stratified squamous epithelium
    • Connects throat to the stomach
  16. Transitional epithelium of urinary bladder
    Looks like stratified cuboidal or stratified squamous
  17. What is a lumen?
    Inside space of tubular structure
  18. What does the extracellular matrix in connective tissue consist of?
    Consists of fluid, fibers and solid material
  19. Types of connective tissue (6)
    • Loose connective tissue
    • Dense connective tissue
    • Adipose (fat)
    • Cartilage
    • Bone
    • Blood
  20. Tissue type that contains cells and fibers; function is binding and packing substance around organs
    Loose aereolar connective tissue
  21. What tissue do the tendons have? How are the fibers aligned?
    • Dense fibrous connective tissue
    • Closely aligned parallel rows
  22. What is the function of a tendon?
    Connects a skeletal muscle to a bone
  23. Tissue composed of adipocytes containing fat that falls out during processing
    Adipose tissue
  24. What comprises the greatest volume of an adipose cell?
    Fat vacuoles
  25. What is the function of hyaline cartilage in the trachea?
    Prevent the trachea from collapsing
  26. Where are chondrocytes contained?
    Within lacunae cavities
  27. What is a function of cartilage?
    Reduces friction by covering ends of bones
  28. Bone cells that secrete white inorganic compounds of calcium and phosphate
  29. What does a central Haversian canal hold?
    Holds nerves and blood vessels
  30. What osteon structure is most central?
    Osteonic canal
  31. What does the term "ossification" mean?
    Bone tissue formation
  32. Whole blood consists of what 3 formed elements?
    • Erythrocytes (red blood cells)
    • Leukocytes (white blood cells)
    • Platelets (thrombocytes)
  33. What is plasma?
    Amber fluid whole blood cells are supsended in
  34. Where would you find simple squamous epithelium? (3)
    • Lung aveoli
    • Blood vessels
    • Body cavities
  35. Why do lungs have simple squamous epithelium?
    Permeable to gases
  36. How thick is the epethelium of the kidney?
    One cell layer (simple)
  37. Why is there mucus in the intestine?
  38. What is responsible for the large surface area of the intestine?
  39. What tissue type is found primarily in the respiratory tract?
    Psuedostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
  40. What is the name of the embryonic tissue from which all connective tissue are derived?
  41. What are the three components of all connective tissue?
    Cells, proteinaceous fibers and matrix
  42. What is the benefit of the shape of the erythrocyte cell?
    Large surface area for diffusion
  43. What is the primary function of the erythrocytes?
    Transport oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood
  44. How long does it take a normal adult to completely replace all red blood cells?
    Once every 4 months
  45. Cytoplasmic fragments in the bone marrow
  46. Do leukocytes contain a nucleus?
  47. What two groups are leukocytes divided into?
    • Granulocytes
    • Agranulocytes
  48. Granulocytes (2)
    • Consist of neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils
    • Produced in bone marrow
  49. Agranulocytes (2)
    • Lymphocytes and monocytes
    • Produced in lymphatic tissue and bone marrow
  50. What are the 4 primary functions of leukocytes?
    • Phagocytosis
    • Take up toxins
    • Release enzymes
    • Produce antibodies
  51. Most numerous type of leukocyte, plays a key role in the bodys defense against bacteria
  52. Leukocyte that plays a key role in the destruction of antigens
  53. Leukocyte whose primary function is to facilitate the repair of tissue
  54. Contraction of muscle tissue results from interaction between what two types of proteins?
    • Myosin
    • Actin
  55. Three types of muscle tissue in animals
    • Smooth
    • Skeletal
    • Cardiac
  56. Skeletal muscle (2)
    • Fibers appear striated
    • Comprises muscles which move bones
  57. Where is smooth muscle found? What nervous control is it under?
    • Found in blood vessels and digestive tract
    • Under involuntary nervous control
  58. In which organisms are smooth muscles commonly found? What is there general function
    • Least complex organisms
    • Move material by contracting and relaxing
  59. Where are cardiac muscle cells found?
    The heart
  60. At what level are cardiac muscles controlled?
    Unconscious level (involuntary)
  61. In simple animals, what do the cells of the nervous system develop into?
    A nerve net
  62. What are the two types of nerve tissue?
    • Neurons
    • Neuroglia
  63. Why are neurons the functional unit of the nervous system?
    They respond to stimuli by the generation and transmission of electrical impulses
  64. What is the main function of glial cells in the nervous tissue?
  65. Active in the cell processes that bring impulses toward the body, located in nerve cell tissue
  66. Extension that transmits impulses away from the cell body, found in nerve cell tissue
  67. Outer thin layer simple squamous epithelium with connective tissue and blood vessels, found in the small intestine
  68. Layers of smooth muscles found in the small intestine
  69. Region that contains the larger blood vessels and the lymphatics of the gut, found in the small intestine
  70. Large folded projections that increase the surface area of the small intestine
  71. What is an extreme example of a protective epithelium?
  72. Process where cells contain more keratin as they age and near the surface
  73. Layer of the skin in which cells actively undergo mitotic division and give rise to the three outer epidermal layers
    Basal layer
  74. Principal pigment of the skin, formed in the basal layer by melanocytes
  75. Layer of the skin beneath the epidermis that contains connective tissue fibers, blood vessels, nerves, sweat glands, etc
  76. What tissue is the dermis composed of?
    Dense fibrous connective tissue
  77. Why is the dermis composed of irregular connective tissue?
    So it can withstand stretching
  78. Subcutaneous layer, deepest layer of skin
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