1. are the fundamental building blocks of rocks
  2. How do MINERALS form?
  3. In order for a mineral to crystallize, ions from the nearby environment must be brought together.
    • Precipitation-evaporation process
    • Fractional crystallization- forming from magma
  4. is molten rock that forms deep within the earth
  5. as magma cools
    elements combine to form mineral
  6. The first minerals to crystallize from magma are usually those rich in
    iron, calcium and magnesium
  7. as minerals continue to form, the composition of the magma changes, following with minerals rich in
    sodium, potassium, aluminum
  8. minerals naturally composed of only one element
    native elements
  9. native elements examples
    diamonds, sulfur, gold
  10. minerals containing SO4^-2 or S^-2 anions
    sulfides and sulfates
  11. sulfides and sulfates examples
    galena, pyrite, gypusm
  12. minerals containing O^-2 anions
  13. oxides eamples
    hematite, magnetite, rutile
  14. huge family of minerals which all contains some variant of SiO2
  15. silicates examples
    quartz, garnets, micas, feldspars, clay minerals
  16. minerals containing the CO3 anion
  17. carbonates examples
    calcite barite
  18. including salts and several other groups
  19. example of others
    fluorite, halite
  20. Common Ferromagnesian Silicates (mafic)
    Olivine, Pyroxene, Biotite, Amphibole
  21. Common Nonferromagnesian Silicates (felsic)
    uartz, Orthoclase Feldspar, Muscovite, Plagioclase Feldspar.
  22. Ferromagnesian Silicates (mafic) form at _______ temp and ______ to form
    high, first
  23. Nonferromagnesian Silicates (felsic) form at _______ temp and ______ to form
    low, last
  24. over 90% of the minerals in the earth' crust
  25. compounds of oxygen silicon and a metal
  26. formed via tetrahedrons
  27. made of negatively charged carbonate ions bonds to positive metal ion
  28. contain significant amount iron combined with either oxygen or sulfur
    oxides and sulfides
  29. Calcite: CaCO3, Gypsum: CaSO4, Pyrite: FeS2, Galena: PbS, Graphite: C, Magnetite:Fe3O4
    Non-silicate Minerals
  30. fill outershell
    Ionic Bonding
  31. atoms share outer electrons with other atoms.
    Covalent Bonding
  32. metal atoms share outer electrons to such a degree that their outer shells tend to merge.
    Metallic Bonding
  33. relatively weak electrical attraction related to the asymmetry of certain atoms and ions.
    Van der Waals
  34. Ionic Bonding =
    Electron Transfer
  35. Covalent Bonding =
    Electron Sharing
  36. different between Diamond and Graphite
    same components but different structure in the bonding
  37. Heat flow across Core Mantle Boundary forces changes in
    magnetic field
  38. Why do most volcanoes occur at or near plate boundaries?
    The conditions at the boundaries changes the normal pressure and temperature conditions enough to force the production of magma
  39. Is the mantle made of “magma”?
  40. Mantle “behavior” is broken into 3 zones:
    • Just below crust as part of the “lithosphere”
    • Asthenosphere- solid-elastic
    • Mesosphere- more solid/rigid
  41. How is Magma Generated?
    Melting that occurs due to pressure and temperature changes during plate tectonic processes
  42. The geothermal gradient reveals the ______ as the source of most magmas.
  43. a line that shows the change in temperature with depth within the earth.
    Geothermal gradient
  44. Magma temperatures range between
    600° and 1200° C
  45. When rock becomes molten, it becomes less dense and tends to rise toward the surface, which causes two things to happen:
    –Cooling, which tends to solidify the magma.

    –Pressure drop, which tends to allow it to remain molten.
  46. Three factors influence melting point


  47. is the most important aspect of magma 
    chemical composition.
    Silica content
  48. generate mafic (basaltic) magmas with low volatile contents.
    Divergent boundaries and hotspots
  49. dry ultramafic asthenosphere.
    Source material
  50. Partial melting _______ silica content to mafic (basaltic) range.
  51. Eruptions are typically quiet because the basalt flows freely and does not have lots of volatiles (gases) that would tend to
    escape quickly.
  52. generate intermediate to felsic magmas with high volatile contents.
    Subduction zones
  53. dry asthenosphere + seawater saturated oceanic lithosphere (basaltic) and continental sediments and crust (granitic).
    Source material
  54. include all the products resulting from eruptions of lava
    • extrusive
    • Volcanic rocks
  55. are those that have solidified below ground
    • intrusive
    • Plutonic rocks
  56. How are Igneous Rocks Classified?
    • Texture
    • Composition
  57. light cooler
    Dominated by non-ferromagnesian minerals.
    relatively low density (2.7 g/cm3)
  58. dark cooler
    Dominated by ferromagnesian minerals.
    relatively high density (2.9 g/cm3)
  59. mix of colors
  60. solid cooler of rocks
    extrusive/volcanic rock/fine
  61. a tabular body of igneous rock that cuts across layered or non-layered rocks.
  62. a tabular body of igneous rock that lies parallel to the layers of a layered rock body.
  63. large, balloon-shaped pluton with a horizontal  (map view) extent of >100 square km  (36 square miles).
  64. similar to a batholith, but smaller (<100 km2).
  65. Dominated by ferromagnesian minerals.
    Dark color, relatively high density (2.9 g/cm3)
  66. Divergent boundaries and hotspots Eruptions are typically quiet because the basalt flows freely and does not have lots of volatiles (gases) that would tend to __________.
    escape quickly
  67. Subduction zones Result is a viscous (sticky) magma that contain lots of volatiles that want to escape quickly – this tends to produce _______
    violent eruptions
  68. Subduction zones Partial melting and incorporation of crustal rocks increase silica content to ______________.
    intermediate or felsic range
  69. Divergent boundaries and hotspots  Partial melting increases silica content to __________
    mafic (basaltic) range.
  70. an isolated area of volcanic activity that does not correspond to a plate boundary.
    Hot Spot
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