mcat science

  1. Aromatics Hydrogens HNMR
    6.0 to 8.5 ppm
  2. Carboxylic acids Hydrogens > HNMR
    10.5 to 12 ppm
  3. Aldehyde Hydrogens > HNMR
    9 to 10 ppm
  4. Hydrogens on sp carbons >
    2.0 to 3.0 ppm
  5. Hydrogens on sp2 carbons >
    4.6 to 6.0 ppm
  6. Hydrogens on sp3 carbons >
    0 to 3 ppm
  7. Sharp peak at 1750 cm-1 > IR
    C=O
  8. Sharp peak at 3300 cm-1 > IR
    N-H
  9. Carboxylic acids > IR
    3000 cm-1
  10. Broad peak at 3300 cm-1 > IR
    O-H
  11. increase boiling point leads to increased or decreased retention tie in gas-liquid chromotagraphy?
    increase
  12. trans fat hydrocarbon tails experience less elecrostatic repulsion when in close proximity to each other compared to cis so they're more likely to be solid at body temperature and clog blood vessels
    trans fat hydrocarbon tails experience less elecrostatic repulsion when in close proximity to each other compared to cis so they're more likely to be solid at body temperature and clog blood vessels
  13. to get an amide from a carboxylic acid first use
    phosphorus pentachloride to put a cl group
  14. coenzyme q takes e- from complex 1 and 2 so it oxidizes them and becomes reduced and then gives e- to complex 3 so it reduces 3 and becomes oxidized
    coenzyme q takes e- from complex 1 and 2 so it oxidizes them and becomes reduced and then gives e- to complex 3 so it reduces 3 and becomes oxidized
  15. which complex does it deliver e- to and how many H+ pumped from matrix to intermembrane space?

    NADH
    FADH2
    Coenzyme Q / Ubiquinone
    Cytochrome C
    • complex 1 - 4H+
    • complex 2- zero H+
    • complex 3 - 4H+
    • complex 4 - 2H+
  16. reduction of ubiquinone with one e- leads to semiquinone which has a free radical
    reduction of ubiquinone with one e- leads to semiquinone which has a free radical
  17. what delivers triacylglycerides to tissues?
    VLDL
  18. what delivers cholesterol to tissues and what delivers dietary fats to tissue and eventually liver?
    HDL

    chylomicrons
  19. how many negative charges on the oxygen of a ATP molecule ?
    4
  20. Erythrocytes require glucose for energy because they have no
    mitochondria
  21. v = fλ
    v = fλ

    v=3 x 10^8
  22. E =hv/λ

    h = ?

    E = hf
    E =hv/λ

    h =  6.6 x 10^-34

    E = hf
  23. to get overall electric potential flip sign of more negative then add
    to get overall electric potential flip sign of more negative then add
  24. delta G < 0 

    delta G > 0
    spontaneous 

    non-spontaneous
  25. voltage generated by an electrochemical cell at equilibrium is
    zero
  26. 1 x 10^-1

    what pH?
    1
  27. 1 x 10^-3

    what pH?
    3
  28. 3 x 10^-3

    what pH?
    2.5
  29. ketogenic amino acids
    lysine leucine
  30. keto and glucogenic amino acids
    PITTT

    • Phenylalanine 
    • isoleucine
    • tryptophan
    • tyrosine
    • threonine
  31. Structural / Constitutional isomer # of carbons

    1-3 -- 1
    4 --- 2
    5 --- 3
    6 --- 5
    7 ---- 9
    8 ---- 18
    9 ---- 35
    10 ---- 75
    Structural / Constitutional isomer # of carbons

    • 1-3 -- 1
    • 4 --- 2
    • 5 --- 3
    • 6 --- 5
    • 7 ---- 9
    • 8 ---- 18
    • 9 ---- 35
    • 10 ---- 75
  32. CO2 + H2O =
    Carbonic acid so pH is lower (carbonic anhydrase speeds this up although it can occur without it)
  33. blood pressure in the leg or head is greater?
    leg bcuz gravitational potential energy in the head is greater so leg will have greater pressure due to gravitational potential energy in leg converted to kinetic energy of circular motion
  34. amide HNMR
    5-8.5 ppm
  35. enols are good nucleophiles but their conjugate bases (blank) are even better
    enolates
  36. when soluable nonvolatile solutes (s) are added to a pure liquid the boiling point ?
    increases
  37. main group is the group of elements whose lightest members are represented by helium, lithium, beryllium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine as arranged in the periodic table of the elements.
    main group is the group of elements whose lightest members are represented by helium, lithium, beryllium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine as arranged in the periodic table of the elements.
  38. B/ L -- Molecular geometry

    2/0  
    3/0
    2/1
    4/0
    3/1
    2/2
    5/0
    4/1
    3/2
    2/3
    6/0
    5/1
    4/2
    • 2/0 - linear  
    • 3/0 - trigonal planar
    • 2/1 - bent
    • 4/0 - tetrahedral
    • 3/1 - trigonal pyramidal
    • 2/2 - bent
    • 5/0 - trigonal bipyramidal
    • 4/1 - seesaw
    • 3/2 - t-shaped
    • 2/3 - linear

    • 6/0 - octahedral
    • 5/1 - square pyramidal 
    • 4/2 - square planar
  39. electron geometry

    2 - linear
    3 - trigonal planar
    4- tetrahedral 
    5 - trigonal bipyramidal 
    6 - octahedral
    electron geometry

    • 2 - linear
    • 3 - trigonal planar
    • 4- tetrahedral 
    • 5 - trigonal bipyramidal 
    • 6 - octahedral
  40. straight chains hydrocarbons have higher or lower melting points than branched compounds?
    higher boiling points and melting points cuz they have more surface area that can contact adjacent molecules they experience more london dispersion forces

    n - octane indicates normal straight chain hydrocarbon
  41. GLUT 4 
    GLUT 3
    GLUT 2
    GLUT 1
    GLUT 4- Heart and skeletal muscle & adipose tissue

    GLUT 3- most tissues

    GLUT 2- liver and pancreatic beta cells

    GLUT 1- most tissues / brain / red cells
  42. highest proton to neutron ratio most likely to undergo beta + decay (positron emission)
    highest proton to neutron ratio most likely to undergo beta + decay (positron emission)

    4He - the 4 on top would be protons and neutrons and the 2 at bottom would be protons
  43. 100 mM = how many M (mol/L) ?
    • 0.10 M
    • 0.10 mol/L
  44. for the young modulus the higher the stress / strain the stiffer it is and the greatest resistance to linear deformation (strain)
    for the young modulus the higher the stress / strain the stiffer it is and the greatest resistance to linear deformation (strain)
  45. speed of photons is the speed of light and does not depend on energy so speed of earth photon and sun photon would be
    the same
  46. laminar flow is due to shear forces between fluid and solid surface of tube so speed is greatest and friction is lowest in the middle
    laminar flow is due to shear forces between fluid and solid surface of tube so speed is greatest and friction is lowest in the middle
  47. A chaotropic agent is a molecule in water solution that can disrupt the hydrogen bonding network between water molecules. so it can be used to denature a protein (urea)

    ionizing radation disrupts proteins for denaturing not non-ionizing
    A chaotropic agent is a molecule in water solution that can disrupt the hydrogen bonding network between water molecules. so it can be used to denature a protein (UREA)


    ionizing radation disrupts proteins for denaturing not non-ionizing
  48. volume flow rate is proportional to radius to the 4th power
    volume flow rate is proportional to radius to the 4th power
  49. A /   (Q/W) =        (A X W) / Q
    A /   (Q/W) =        (A X W) / Q
  50. a person living at higher elevation will produce more blood cells because there is less oxygen in the air -- the kidneys have receptors to pick up on oxygen level in blood and produce erythropoietin to produce more blood cells therefore the hematocrit % would .....
    increase
  51. F = ma = F applied - Fk (force of kinetic friction)
    F = ma = F applied - Fk (force of kinetic friction)
  52. 1 Nm = 1 J
    1 Nm = 1 J
  53. w = fdcos(θ)
    w = fdcos(θ)
  54. cortisol impairs memory and recall because under stress this hormone hinders hippocampus from getting enough energy because it diverts glucose to surrounding muscles
    cortisol impairs memory and recall because under stress this hormone hinders hippocampus from getting enough energy because it diverts glucose to surrounding muscles 
  55. What are the viable trisomys? 

    Are any autosomal monosomies viable? 

    Ka- 1.8x10^-5 what pka?
    21, 18, 13

    No autosomal monosomies viable

    5-1=4 and 10-1.8=8.2

    Pka 4.82
  56. another name for irreversible inhibition
    suicide inhibition
  57. X-intercept and y-intercept for enzyme kinetics
    -1/km

    1/vmax
  58. Phosphatases = dephosphorylation or phosphorylation?

    and what purpose is served?
    dephosphorylation to stop or inhibit signaling pathways
  59. X`X` or X`X

    which daughter is infected if it is a x-linked recessive disease?
    X-linked recessive diseases are rare in women because both X's need to be infected.

     X`X`
  60. electrons are passed from carriers which ____ reduction potential to those with ____ reduction potential

    electron carriers can transport a maximum of ___ electrons

    cytocrome c is ____ soluble and most carriers in ETC are ____ soluble
    lower

    higher

    2

    the first electron carrier is also a proton pump

    water (hydrophillic)

    lipid (hydrophobic)
  61. ____ secretes glucagon

    and glycogen is stored in the ____

    so glucagon receptors would be located on the ____
    pancreatic a-cells (b-cells - insulin)

    liver

    liver cuz glucagon converts the glycogen in the liver to glucose to raise blood glucose levels
  62. hyperventilation involves increased ____ in blood and decreased ____

    the decreased ____ in blood because it is exhaled causes a ____ in blood pH and ____ affinity for ____ for hemoglobin
    O2

    CO2

    CO2

    increase (cuz no carbonic acid formed)

    increased

    O2
  63. Carbonic acid formula

    Carbonic acid is not an organic compound because it doesn't have c bound directly to h.
    H2CO3

    Carbonic acid is not an organic compound because it doesn't have c bound directly to h.
  64. aldosterone - distal convoluted tubule and collecting ducts

    adh- collecting ducts

    aldosterone - affects Na+ resorption so water will follow

    adh- affects osmolarity by increasing water reabsorption

    aldosterone - increase K+ AND H+ excretion in urine

    so hyperaldoseronism will decrease blood K+, increase blood Na+, increase blood pressure (hypertension), and decrease renin concentration cuz increased aldosterone will cause negative feedback of renin
    aldosterone - distal convoluted tubule and collecting ducts

    adh- collecting ducts

    aldosterone - affects Na+ resorption so water will follow

    adh- affects osmolarity by increasing water reabsorption

    aldosterone - increase K+ AND H+ excretion in urine

    so hyperaldoseronism will decrease blood K+, increase blood Na+, increase blood pressure (hypertension), and decrease renin concentration cuz increased aldosterone will cause negative feedback of renin
  65. lysogenic or lytic virus?

    alter nuclear DNA but it is not activated for several generations
    lysogenic
  66. higher enzyme activity = higher vmax
    higher enzyme activity = higher vmax
Author
JAM41MAN
ID
339276
Card Set
mcat science
Description
mcat science
Updated