World History Greece and Rome test

  1. Define democracy
    • -when the people vote for their leaders and laws
    • -athens had a direct democracy where the people vote for everything
    • -greece was the first with a democracy
  2. Define a republic
    • -reps rule the government and are elected
    • -Rome had a republic
  3. Define a democratic repubic
    • -the people vote for reps. to represent them and vote on laws
    • -the U.S had a dem. republic
  4. Identify the Roman government
    • executive:2 consuls
    • legislative:senate-patricians
    • tribal assembly-plebians
    • centuriate assembly-citizen soldiers
    • judicial:praetors
    • legal code:12 tables
  5. Identify the U.S. dem. republic
    • executive:president
    • legislative:senate-2 per state
    • house of reps-# of reps based on population
    • judicial:supreme court
    • legal code:U.S. constitution
  6. Describe the greece government
    • -they had a democracy were they voted for everything
    • -they went to a rep. democracy ruled by a council of 500
    • -500 citizens randomly picked to rule for one year
  7. Name the Hellenistic scholars and what they did
    • Aristarchus-proposed that earth & the planets revolved around the sun
    • Ptolemy-incorrectly placed earth at the center of the solar system
    • Eratosthenes-computed earth's circumference
    • Euclid-wrote the book Elements
    • Archimedes-estimated the value of pi
  8. Zeus
    • -king of gods and sky
    • -equiv. Jupiter
  9. Hera
    • -queen of gods, zeus's wife/sibling
    • -equiv. Juno
  10. Poseidon
    • -god of sea
    • -equiv. Neptune
  11. Hades
    • -god of underworld
    • -equiv. Pluto
  12. Athena
    -goddess of wisdom
  13. Aphrodite
    • -goddess of beauty & love
    • -equiv. Venas
  14. Apollo
    • -god of sun, medicine, & music
    • -equiv. Apoud
  15. Ares
    • -god of war
    • -equiv. Mars
  16. Hermes
    • -messenger god
    • -equiv. Mercury
  17. Geographical advantages
    • -centrally located in the Mediteranean so they could trade anywhere
    • -surrounded by hills for defense
    • -access to the Med. sea for trade but was safe from attack
    • -fertile soil for crops
  18. Describe the end of the roman republic
    • -rich generals would recruit personal armies from homeless & poor,eventually becoming more powerful than the roman army and took over as dictators and eventually emporers
    • -1st to do this was Lucious Cornelius Sulla
  19. Describe the reasons why the roman empire collapsed
    • Military
    • -to big to defend
    • -germanic tribes constantly attacked rome, eventually moved in to get away from Attilla the Hun
    • Social
    • -willingness to die for Rome grew weaker
    • Political
    • -politicians stopped serving in gov. to make it better, started searching for pers. game
    • -empire split in half btwn. east and west, east became strong, west fell within a couple hundred years
    • Economic
    • -werent expanding=shortage of gold & silver
    • -pirates stole overseas trade & germanic tribes stole other trade
    • -put less metal into coins causing inflation
    • -raised taxes
  20. Legacy of rome
    • architecture
    • -roads, aquaducts, domes/arches, colosseum
    • language
    • -latin=basis of romance lang./english
    • -used in law, medicine & science
    • government
    • -all western gov. based on roman model
  21. Legacy of greece
    • -democracy
    • -philosophy
    • -drama
  22. Oligarchy
    -ruled by a group of powerful people
  23. Tyranny
    -dictatorship ruled by one all powerful person, tyrant
  24. Aristocracy
    -ruled by a group of rich people
  25. Myceneans
    -migrants who settled in greece & controlled it from 1600 B.C.-1200 B.C.
  26. Trojan war
    • -3 gods go to paris to decide who get apple & is most beautiful
    • -god that paris picks (Aphrodite) says he can have his true love
    • -he steals helen
    • -Greeks and Trojans fight, greeks ride into troy in a giant horse, once everyone is asleep, they come out and kill everyone
  27. Athens
    • -they had a direct democracy and went to a rep. democracy
    • -fought in the persian wars and peloponnesian wars
    • -had the greatest navy in the world
    • -boys went to school at age 7 to study arts and lit.
    • -athletic ability and fitness was still important
  28. Sparta
    • -a military city-state
    • -they had to have a strong military to keep the slaves from taking over
    • -the #1 value was protecting sparta
    • -they got rid of any imperfect babies
    • -boys joined the military at age 7 and were trained to deal with any kind of hardship until best soldier possible
    • -did not focus on arts
  29. Persian wars
    • -persia vs. athens
    • -athens tried to start a revolt in persia, persians wanted revenge
    • -war eventually results in athens becoming super power or region dominating culturally, politically, economically & militarily
  30. Battle of marathon
    • -Darius & the persians wanted to attack athens with 25,000 soldiers, athens sent out 10,000
    • -the athenian phalanx destroyed the persians
    • -pheidippides ran back to athens to say not to destroy the city, after he did he died
  31. Battle of thermopylae/salamis
    • -Xerxes decides to attack greece because he wants revenge, no greeks want to fight
    • -sparta sends out 300 soldiers to meet them at a mountain pass called thermopylae, they hold them off for 8 days until they are betrayed
    • -they held off the persians long enough so athens could be abandoned & escape to an island called salamis
  32. Pericles
    • -led athens at the height of their power for 32 years (golden age)
    • -he extended direct democracy, added more things to vote on
    • -made their navy the greatest in the world
  33. Socrates
    • -father of philosophy
    • -focused on ethics
    • -socratic method
  34. Plato
    • -student of socrates
    • -focused on politics and gov.
    • -wrote a book called the Republic, Utopia
    • -started the 1st university in the western world called The Academy
  35. Aristotle
    • -student of plato
    • -focused on math & logic, chains of reasoning
    • -tutor for alexander the great
  36. Peloponnesian war
    • -sparta vs. athens
    • -sparta had a strong army and felt threatened that Athens was getting stronger
    • -sparta tried to push athens back into the city walls, burn their supply, and seige the city
    • -didnt work because athens could bring in supplies by water
    • -athens tried to stay away from land battles and attack by water, blockade sparta's sea trade
    • -didnt work because sparta was not along the sea
    • -after 27 years of war, a plague wiped out 1/3 of the city of athens, leaving them to weak to fight
  37. Alexander the great
    • -took over when he was 20
    • -for 11 years, army marched 11,000 miles, conquering everything from Greece to India
    • -eventually let men go home
    • -after he stopped he died at age 32
  38. Hellenistic culture
    • -where ever alexander conquered, he brought the greek culture & blended it with the good aspects of the local culture
    • -notible for science
  39. 12 tables
    -roman legal code carved into stone so it was permanent and couldnt be changed
  40. Patricians
    • -rich people
    • -made up the roman senate
  41. Plebian
    • -commoners
    • -made up the roman tribal assembly
  42. Legion
    • -5000 soldiers
    • -led by a century, 80 officers and 20 calvary
  43. Julius Caesar
    • -rich general who made $ by invading and couquering Gaul
    • -he, crassus and pompey created the triumverate
    • -double crossed the other 2 and took power over rome
    • -eventually stabbed by roman senate
  44. Octavian/Augustus
    • -octavian was ceasars nephew
    • -formed a triumverate with lepidus and mare antony
    • -betrayed them and took over rome
    • -changed his name to augustus, caeser augustus
    • -good leader, reigned during Pax Romana (golden age)
  45. Christianity
    • -belief that jesus of nazereth was the son of god and the long awaited jewish messiah
    • -being a christian was illegal and punishable by death
  46. Jesus of Nazereth
    • -the long awaited jewish messiah
    • -he was crucified
    • -he rose from the dead 3 days later, made appearences to his followers, and assended into heaven
  47. Crucifixion
    • -(mostly for jesus)the person is scourged, then they have to carry the cross & are nailed to it
    • -the force pushing down on the person suffacates them
    • -the roman guards stab the victim to make sure he is dead or they will be put in their place
  48. Paul
    • -the main reason christianity spread
    • -also because of the Pax Romana and good roads
  49. Constantine
    • -the roman emporer who was in a battle he assumed he was going to lose
    • -he had a vision to put a cross on his soldiers shields and saw a vision of the cross in the sky (or jesus)
    • -he did that and won the battle
    • -he made christianity one of the official religions
    • -theodosius made it THE official religion
  50. Germanic tribes
    • -groups from northern and sometimes eastern that would constantly attack rome
    • -ostrogoths, visigoths, burgundians, franks, anglos, etc.
  51. Huns/Attila
    • -the huns were led by attila the hun
    • -dominated everywhere
Card Set
World History Greece and Rome test
World History test over greece and rome :(