1. ​ B1 used at the beginning of children's stories to mean "a long time ago":

    used when referring to something that happened in the past, especially
    when showing that you feel sorry that it no longer happens:
    once upon a time

    Once upon a time there was an ugly duckling.

    ​  Once upon a time people knew the difference between right and wrong, but nowadays nobody seems to care.
  2. B2 a curved device used for catching or holding things, especially one attached to a surface for hanging things on:
    a coat/picture hook a boat hook a fish hook
  3. B2 [ C or U ] a willingness to give your time and energy to something that you believe in, or a promise or firm decision to do something:

    [ C ] something that you must do or deal with that takes your time:
    • Players must make a commitment to play for a full season.
    • her commitment to left-wing politics/the cause of feminism/the company
    • She is known chiefly for her commitment to nuclear disarmament.
    • I'd like to thank the staff for having shown such commitment.

    family/work commitments I've got too many commitments at the moment to do an evening class. Children are such a commitment.
  4. 2 having little importance, influence, or effect, especially when compared with other things of the same type:
    • a minor operation
    • It's only a minor problem.
    • There's been an increase in minor offences, such as traffic violations and petty theft.
    • She suffered only minor injuries.
  5. C1 the fact of making something seem larger, more important, better, or worse than it really is:
    Sal estimates over 60 people were there but I think that's a slight exaggeration.

    [ + to infinitive ] It would be no exaggeration to say that her work has saved lives.
  6. B1 [ I or T ] to make an arrangement or meeting certain, often by phone or writing:
    • [ + that ] Six people have confirmed that they will be attending and ten haven't replied yet.
    • Flights should be confirmed 48 hours before departure.
    • I've accepted the job over the phone, but I haven't confirmed in writing yet.
  7. B2 to involve yourself in a situation when your involvement is not wanted or is not helpful:
    It's their problem and I'm not going to interfere. I'd never interfere between (US with) a husband and wife. Interfering in other people's relationships is always a mistake.
  8. an interruption in the usual way that a system, process, or event works:
    It would cause a tremendous disruption to our work schedule to install a different computer system.

    A crackdown on illegal-immigrant hiring could create widespread workplace disruptions.
  9. C1 to prevent someone or something from entering a place or taking part in an activity:
    • Women are still excluded from the club.
    • Microbes must, as far as possible, be excluded from the room during an operation.

    Tom has been excluded from school (= he is not allowed to go to school) for bad behaviour.
  10. G 1. to experience great difficulties or be completely unable to decide what to do or say next:

    2. verb: (especially of a boat) to fill with water and sink: 
    to be unsuccessful:
    He lost the next page of his speech and floundered around/about for a few seconds. Although his business was a success, his marriage was floundering. Richardson resigned as chairman, leaving the company floundering.

    2. The ferry foundered in a heavy storm, taking many of the passengers and crew with it.

    ​ to be unsuccessful: Teaching computers to read and write has always foundered on the unpredictable human element in language.
  11. G . 1. B2 in the past:

    2. officially:
    • 1. formerly
    • The European Union was formerly called the European Community.

    2. After he formally declared his interest in the club, a number of rival takeover bids have been announced.The centre will be formally opened next year.The ceasefire has yet to be formally agreed.
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