1. B2 to give something,especially money, in order to provide or achieve something together with other people:
    Aren't you going to contribute towards Jack's leaving present?

    Come to the meeting if you feel you have something to contribute.

    Her family has contributed $50,000 tothe fund.

  2. B2 an important discovery or event that helps to improve a situation or provide an answer to a problem:
    Scientists are hoping for a breakthrough in the search for a cure for cancer.

    A major breakthrough in negotiationshas been achieved.

    (r Durchbruch)
  3. someone who says they haveparticular moral beliefs butbehaves in way that showsthese are not sincere:
    He's a hypocrite - he's always lecturingother people on the environment but he drives around in a huge car. (r Heuchler)
  4. B2 to (cause to) slope in one direction, or to move the top part of the body in a particular direction:
    She leaned forward and whisperedsomething in my ear.

    I sat down next to Bernard, who leaned over to me and said "You're late."

    Lean your head back a little.

    That fence is leaning to the right.

  5. payment for work or services:
    They demanded adequate remuneration for their work.

    In return for some caretaking duties, we are offering a free apartment and a small remuneration.

    • a remuneration package
    • (s Entgelt)
  6. B1 the joint (= place where two bones are connected) between the foot and the leg, or the thin part of the leg just above the foot:
    I fell over and sprained/twisted my ankle.
  7. someone who starts their own business, especially when this involves seeing a new opportunity:
    He was one of the entrepreneurs of the 80s who made their money in property.

    (r Unternehmer)
  8. B2 [ U or C ] the fact of not being where you are usually expected to be:
    A new manager was appointed during/inher absence.

    She has had repeated absences fromwork this year

  9. [ C usually plural ] an activity that you spend time doing, usually when you are not working:
    I enjoy outdoor pursuits, like hiking and riding.

    I don't have much opportunity for leisurepursuits these days.

    Thesaurus: synonyms
  10. B2 to press or be pressed against something with a circular or up-and-down repeated movement:
    She yawned and rubbed her eyessleepily.

    He rubbed (at) the stain on his trousersand made it worse.

    We rubbed some polish into the surfaceof the wood.

    She gently rubbed the ointment in.

    First rub the baking tray well with butter.

    [ + obj + adj ] Alice rubbed the blackboardclean for the teacher.

  11. B1 [ I or T ] to pull or be pulled a part, or to pull pieces off:
    You have to be very careful with booksthis old because the paper tears very easily.

    I tore my skirt on the chair as I stood up.

    A couple of pages had been torn outof/from the book

  12. very determined to do something, even if it is verydifficult:
    Her ambition and dogged determinationensured that she rose to the top of her profession

  13. making you want to do, have, or believe something, because of seeming attractive:
    Television confronts the viewer with a succession of glittering and seductive images.

    The argument that sanctions should be given more time to work is seductive but fatally flawed

  14. B2 having a good understanding of the way people behave and/or a good knowledge of culture and fashion:
    She was slim, svelte, and sophisticated.

    I don't think I have any books that would suit your sophisticated tastes.

    He was older than me and from London and I thought him very sophisticated.

  15. C2 complete and in the original state:
    C2 not damaged:
    The church was destroyed in the bombing but the altar survived intact.

    It's difficult to emerge from such a scandal with your reputation still intact.


  16. B1 [ I or T ] to mix a liquid or other substance by moving an object such as a spoon in a circular pattern:
    Stir the sauce gently until it begins to boil.

    Stir the egg yolks into the mixture.

    She paused to stir some milk into her coffee.

    Slowly add the flour, stirring until completely blended.

  17. to stay away from school or work or to leave early, especially without permission:
    A lot of people bunk off early on Friday.

    • It was a sunny day so they decided to bunk off school.
    • (abhauen)
  18. A2 If an aircraft, bird, or insect ...., it leaves the ground and begins to fly:

    B2 to suddenly start to be successful or popular:
    The plane took off at 8.30 a.m.


    The plane took off three hours late.When should we expect to take off?

    • Thesaurus: synonyms and related words
    • (SUCCEED)

    • Her singing career had just begun to take off.
    • (abheben)
  19. lasting forever or for a very long time:
    The company is engaged in the eternal search for a product that will lead the market.

    Will you two never stop your eternal arguing!

    Thesaurus: synonyms

  20. B2 [ T ] to collect several things, often from different places or people:
    I went to several libraries to gather information about the plans.

    We gathered blueberries from the bushes.

    She gathered up the newspapers that were scattered around the floor.

    We gathered our things together and leftquickly.

  21. B2 [ I or T, usually + adv/prep ] to (cause to) go or do something very quickly:
    • I've been rushing (about/around) all daytrying to get everything done.
    • I rushed up the stairs/to the office/to find a phone.

    • When she turned it upside down the water rushed out.
    • [ + to infinitive ] We shouldn't rush to blamethem.

    • You can't rush a job like this.
    • The emergency legislation was rushed through Parliament in a morning.
    • Don't rush me!
    • The United Nations has rushed medicalaid and food to the famine zone.
    • He rushed the children off to school so they wouldn't be late.

  22. C1 formal to say that something is certainly true
    [ + that ] He asserts that she stole moneyfrom him.

    (behaupten, dass..)
  23. C1 to understand something,especially something difficult:
    I think I managed to grasp the mainpoints of the lecture.

    • The government has acknowledged that homelessness is a problem but it has failed to grasp the scale of the problem.
    • (fassen)
  24. untidy and dirty:
    a slovenly appearance

    I'll have to improve my slovenly habits - my mother's coming to Stay

  25. C1 too much:
    Excessive exercise can sometimes cause health problems.

    Any more pudding would simply be excessive.
  26. B2 a powerful effect that something, especiallysomething new, has on asituation or person:
    The anti-smoking campaign had had/made quite an impact on youngpeople.

    The new proposals were intended to soften the impact of the reformed taxsystem.

  27. B1 to finish, use, or sell all of something, so that there is none left:

    If a document or officialagreement runs out, the periodof time for which it lastsfinishes:
    I've run out ofmilk/money/ideas/patience.

    "Do you have any milk?" "Sorry, I've runout."

    My passport runs out next month - I must get it renewed.

  28. B2 immediately:
    We can now communicateinstantly with people on the other side of the world

  29. C1 to think that something is or will be greater, moreextreme, or more importantthan it really is:
    The benefits of nuclear technology, she said, had been grossly overestimated.

    They were forced to the conclusion that they had overestimated him/his abilities.

    I overestimated and there was a lot of food left over after the party.

  30. not treating people in anequal way, or not morally right:
    an unfair system

    [ + to infinitive ] It's unfair to blame Robert.

    More examples

    an unfair distribution of wealthShe is suing the company on grounds of unfair dismissal.

  31. C2 [ U ] a state of greatexcitement:
    The whole country seems to be in the grip of football fever.
  32. C2 [ C ] a belief or opinion, often held by many people andbased on how things seem:
    We have to change the public's perception that money is being wasted.

    These photographs will affect people's perceptions of war.

  33. C1 permission or agreement:
    They can't publish your name without your consent.

    You can only come on the trip if yourparents give their consent.
  34. B1 [ T ] to protect someone or something against attack orcriticism; to speak in favour of someone or something:
    How can we defend our homeland if we don't have an army?

    White blood cells help defend the bodyagainst infection.
  35. to say that you know fromexperience that something istrue or good, or that someone is honest and has a goodcharacter:
    • Patricia has checked the reports and can vouch for the accuracy of the information.
    • (Für jmdm/etw einstehen)
  36. C2 to cause or allow something to continue for a period of time:

    C2 to keep alive:
    The economy looks set to sustain its growth into next year.

    He seems to find it difficult to sustain relationships with women.

    us The judge sustained (= accepted) the lawyer's objection.

    The soil in this part of the world is not rich enough to sustain a largepopulation.

  37. to need to pay or give something to someone because they have lent money to you, or in exchange for something they have done for you:
    [ + two objects ] I owe Janet $50.

    We still owe $1,000 on our car (= we still need to pay $1,000 before we own ourcar).

  38. a strong feeling of sympathy and sadness for the suffering or bad luck of others and a wish to help them:
    I was hoping she might show a little compassion.
  39. B1 [ T ] to protect someone or something against attack or criticism; to speak in favour of someone or something:
    How can we defend our homeland if we don't have an army?

    White blood cells help defend the body against infection.

    They are fighting to defend their beliefs/interests/rights.
  40. Заманчивый
  41. to make someone upset or angry:
    [ + that ] I think she was offended that she hadn't been invited to the party. He looked offended when you called him middle-aged. If the sight of a few dirty dishes offends you, then I think you're in trouble!
  42. an unfair and unreasonable opinion or feeling, especially when formed without enough thought or knowledge:
    • Laws against racial prejudice must be strictly enforced. [ + that ] The campaign aims to dispel the prejudice that AIDS is confined to the homosexual community. He claims that prejudice against homosexuals would cease overnight if all the gay stars in the country were honest about their sexuality.
    • without prejudice to sth law formal or specialized
    • ​ If a decision or action is made without prejudice to a right or claim, it is made without having an effect on that right or claim: My client accepts the formal apology without prejudice to any further legal action she may decide to take.
  43. G. 1 to prevent yourself from saying or doing something, especially in a way that shows control, good judgment, or kindness to others:(+ FORMS)

    2. a relative who lived in the past
    1 . forbear | forbore | forborne

    His plan was such a success that even his original critics could scarcely forbear from congratulating him. The doctor said she was optimistic about the outcome of the operation but forbore to make any promises at this early stage.

    2. forebear
  44. B1 (used especially in reporting questions and expressing doubts) if, or not:
    I wasn't sure whether you'd like it. She asked me whether I was interested in working for her. I'm wondering whether to have the fish or the beef. I doubt whether it'll work.
  45. B2 not firmly held or fastened in place:
    There were some loose wires hanging out of the wall. The nails in the wall had worked themselves loose. The prisoners were so thin that their skin hung loose.

    ​B2 Loose hair is not tied back: Her hair was hanging loose to her shoulders.

    ​ Loose things are not held together or attached to anything else: A few loose sheets of paper were lying around.
  46. G . 1 the things needed for writing, such as paper, pens, pencils, and envelopes

    2. not moving, or not changing:
    1. stationery

    2. a stationary car/train The traffic got slower and slower until it was stationary. The rate of inflation has been stationary for several months.
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