Apologia physical science module 5

  1. Define hydrosphere
    The mass of water on a planet
  2. Define hydrologic cycle
    The process by which water is continuously exchanged between Earth's various water sources
  3. Define transpiration
    The emission of water vapor from plants
  4. Define condensation
    The process by which water vapor turns into liquid water
  5. Define precipitation
    Water falling from the atmosphere as rain snow sleet or hail
  6. Define distillation
    Evaporation and condensation of a mixture to separate out the mixtures individual components
  7. Define residence time
    The average time a given molecule of water will stay in a given water source
  8. Define salinity
    A measure of the quantity of dissolved salt in the water
  9. Define firn
    A dense icy pack of snow
  10. Define water table
    Imaginary line between water saturated soil and soil not saturated with water
  11. Define percolation
    The process by which water passes from above the water table to below it
  12. Define adiabatic Cooling
    The cooling of a gas that happens when the gas expands
  13. Define Cloud condensation nuclei
    Small particles that water vapor condenses on to form clouds
  14. 2 what kind of water makes up the majority of Earth's air supply?
    The vast majority of water on the earth is salt water, since more than 97% of Earth's water supply is in the ocean
  15. 3 what is the largest source of freshwater on the planet.
    The largest source of freshwater are the glaciers and icebergs on the planet
  16. 4 what is the largest source of liquid freshwater on the planet?
    The largest source of liquid freshwater is groundwater
  17. in the hydraulic cycle, name the ways that water can enter the atmosphere.
    Water can enter the atmosphere through evaporation and transpiration
  18. when a raindrop hits the ground, name three ways it can eventually end up in a river.
    If the Raindrop never really soaks into the soil, it can end up in a river via surface runoff. It could also soak into the ground water and get to the River via groundwater flow. Alternatively, it  could go into the soil, be absorbed by a plant, transpired into the atmosphere, condensed into a cloud, and precipitated into the river. It could also evaporate before it soaks into the ground. That's four answers but you only need three of them
  19. what process in the hydrologic cycle put soil moisture into the atmosphere?
    Transpiration takes water from the soil because plants absorb the soil moisture and then put it into the atmosphere via transpiration
  20. in which body of water would the residence time be shorter: a quickly moving River or a lake that has no River Outlets?
    The residence time in the river is shorter. The residence time will be shorter whenever water is exchanged with other sources quickly
  21. what must a lake have in order for it to contain freshwater?
    A lake must have a way to get rid of water other than just evaporation. This usually is accomplished when the lake feeds a river or stream. If evaporation is the only way of getting rid of water, then the salts that the lake receives will become concentrated, making salt water.
  22. why is the salinity of the ocean evidence that the Earth is not billions of years old?
    The oceans are not salty enough for the earth to be billions of years old. Since salt accumulates in the oceans, the older the Earth is, the salty or the oceans will be. Calculations indicate that even assuming the oceans had no salt to begin with, it would take only 1 million years, not billions, to make the ocean as salty as they are now.
  23. if you tasted melted sea ice, would it taste like freshwater or saltwater?
    Melted sea ice would taste salty because salt is incorporated into sea ice when it freezes.
  24. where do icebergs come from?
    Icebergs come from glaciers that originated in the mountains. If a glacier moves to the Sea, it can break apart and float away as icebergs.
  25. where do glaciers come from?
    13 Glacier start on mountains as the result of snow that never completely melts in the summer. If enough snow piles up, the weight causes it to slide down the mountain as a glacier.
  26. the captain of a ship sees an iceberg and steers clear of it. Why is the captain still worried about the Collision?
    The captain is worried because 90% of the glacier is underwater and therefore not visible. The captain steered clear of the visible part, but the underside of the boat could still hit the part that is underwater.
  27. suppose you studied two areas of land close to one another. In the first, there are a lot of trees. In the second, there are almost no trees at all. Other than that, the two areas seem identical. They have the same kind of grass and experience the same weather. Which one has the deeper water table?
    The water table will be deeper in the area with lots of trees. Since there are no trees to take away soil moisture in the one area, and since they have the same kind of grass, then the area with the trees will deplete soil-moisture faster than the other one. As a result, there will be more unsaturated soil in the region with the trees, and the water table will therefore be deeper.
  28. if no energy is added to air, what happens to the temperature when the air expands?
    The air will cool as it expands. That's what adiabatic cooling is all about.
  29. will fog be thicker in a Dusty area or an area free of dust and dirt?
    Like the cloud in experiment 5.3, the fog will be thicker in the dusty area.
  30. what kind of cooling is responsible for most cloud formation?
    Like the cloud an experiment 5.3, adiabatic cooling accounts for most cloud formation.
  31. what kind of water pollution is the hardest to track back to its source?
    Groundwater pollution is hard to track back because there is no accurate way to tell where the polluted groundwater came from.
Card Set
Apologia physical science module 5
Apologia study guide physical science