Psyc 3025: Human Learning and Cognition - Exam 2 *Ch. 5*

  1. Working memory
    Formerly known as short term memory...the brief, immediate memory for the material that a person is currently processing.
  2. ___ memory actively coordinates ongoing mental activities.
    Working memory
  3. Two main features of working memory
    • 1. Fragile- information you want to retain can disappear from memory in less than one minute. 
    • 2. Limited capacity- you can only simultaneously process and store so much information at one point in time.
  4. ____ memory (contrasts working memory) is very high capacity and can retain material for decades.
    Long term memory (LTM)
  5. Long term memory (LTM)
    The large-capacity memory for experiences and information accumulated throughout one's lifetime.
  6. 3 subdivisions in Long Term memory
    • 1. Episodic
    • 2. Semantic
    • 3. Procedural
  7. What happens to existing memories in long term memory when new memories are established?
    The existing memories are changed.
  8. What happens to memories in long term memory as you get older?
    The memories become hard to access due to interference from similar memories.
  9. Who conducted research that was similar and at the same time as Binet, but was not developed into an IQ test?
    Ebbinghaus
  10. Episodic Memory
    People's memories for events that happened to them personally.
  11. What form of memory does episodic memory contrast?
    Semantic memory
  12. Which subdivision of memory includes your memory of an event that occurred 10 years ago as well as a conversation you had 10 minutes ago?
    Episodic memory
  13. Semantic Memory
    A persons organized knowledge about the world, including knowledge about words and other factual information.
  14. Phonological Loop
    The part of working memory that processes a limited number of sounds for a short period of time.
  15. The ____ processes language and other sounds that a person hears, as well as the sounds that they make.
    Phonological Loop
  16. The _____ ______ task showed the impact of semantic connections on short term memory
    Brown Peterson
  17. In semantic memory, visual features are processed in the occipital lobe and have to be sent to ____ _____ ____ to be converted into meaning.
    Higher processing areas
  18. Visuospatial Sketchpad
    Allows you to look at a complex scene and gather visual information about objects and landmarks and allows you to navigate from one location to another.
  19. Procedural Memory
    A person's knowledge about how to do something.
  20. ____ ____ is often conceptualized in terms of sequences of motor based information that are necessary to complete the action components of a task.
    Procedural memory
  21. Encoding
    The initial acquisition of information and the processing and representation of that information in memory.
  22. The ____ ____ ____ generates alternatives, loads them into your short term memory, and then tries to recognize the correct thing to recall.
    Generate Recognize Theory
  23. The Generate Recognize Theory deals only with the ____, ____retrieval phase of memory
    Conscious, overt
  24. Retrieval
    Locating information in memory storage and accessing that information.
  25. The processes of ____ and ____ cannot be separated.
    Encoding and retrieval
  26. Psychologists test how accurately you you can retrieve information in order to examine how effectively you ____ the information.
    Encoded
  27. What subtype of LTM is associated with remembering personal experiences?
    Episodic memory
  28. What subtype of LTM is associated with remembering facts?
    Semantic memory
  29. Who said that the level of retention and recall of a word event is determined by the qualitative nature of the task?
    Endel Tulving
  30. 3 important questions about encoding in LTM
    • 1. Are we more likely to remember items that we items that we processed in a deep, meaningful fashion, rather than processed in a shallow, superficial fashion?
    • 2. Are we more likely to remember items if the context at the time of encoding matches the context at the time of retrieval?
    • 3. How do emotional factors influence  memory accuracy?
  31. Levels of Processing Approach (Depth of Processing Approach)
    • Craik & Lockhart (1972)
    • Deep, meaningful processing of information leads to more accurate recall than shallow, sensory kinds of processing
  32. People achieve a ____ ____ of processing when they extract more meaning from a stimulus
    Deeper level
  33. You are less likely to recall a word when you consider its ____ ____ or its ____.
    Physical appearance, sound
  34. According to depth, maintenance rehearsal ____ ____ recall.
    Should not
  35. In the levels of processing approach, the deeper information is processed, the more connections to the information are made. In turn, more connections = _____
    More possible pathways to get to the target (memory)
  36. Deep levels of processing encourage recall because of what two factors?
    Distinctiveness and elaboration
  37. Distinctiveness
    In levels of processing approach, the situation in which one memory trace is different from all other memory traces.
  38. Elaboration 
    In levels of processing approach, rich processing emphasizing the meaning of a particular concept and relating the concept to prior knowledge and interconnected concepts already mastered.
  39. ____ processing increases our memory for faces.
    Deep
  40. Self-Reference Effect
    The enhancement of LTM by relating the material to ones self.
  41. Self-Reference Effect: Representative Research
    • Rogers and coauthors (1977)
    • Asked participants to process each English word according to specified instructions. They processed words according to:
    • (a) their visual characteristics
    • (b) their their acoustic charactristics
    • (c) their semantic characteristics
    • (d) self-reference instructions - decide whether a word could be applied to themselves
  42. In the self-reference studies, people are more likely to recall a word that ____ apply to themselves.
    Does
  43. Meta-analysis
    A statistical method for combining numerous studies on a specific topic.
  44. Self-Reference Effect: Participants' failure to follow instructions
    • Foley and coauthors (1999)
    • Participants sometimes used the self-reference effect even when they were instructed to use shallow processing.
  45. 3 Cognitive factors that contribute to the self-reference effect
    • 1. The "self" produces a rich set of cues
    • 2. Self-reference instructions encourage people to consider how their personal traits are connected with one another (elaboration)
    • 3. Material associated with the self is rehearsed more frequently
  46. Encoding-Specificity Principle
    Recall is better if the context at the time of encoding matches the context at the time of retrieval.
  47. The ____ - ____ theory deals only with what happens during seeing the stimulus.
    Encoding-Specificity
  48. Research on Encoding-Specificity: Marian and Fausey (2006)
    Participants fluent in English and Spanish. Stories and questions heard in English or Spanish. The language of the stories either matched or did not match the language of the questions. People were relatively accurate if they heard the story and question in the same language.
  49. Research on Encoding-Specificity: 2 possible explanations for discrepancies between real life research vs. lab  research
    • 1. Different kinds of memory tasks 
    • 2. Physical vs. mental context
  50. Recall Task 
    A task requiring the participants to reproduce items learned earlier.
  51. Recognition Task 
    An explicit memory task that requires participants to identify which items on a list had been presented at an earlier time.
  52. Research on Encoding-Specificity: Different kinds of memory tasks 
    Real life vs. Laboratory 
    • Real life = recall a situation
    • Lab = recognition
  53. Research on Encoding-Specificity: Different kinds of memory tasks
    Short delay vs. Long delay
    • Real life = long delay
    • Lab = short delay
  54. Encoding specificity is typically strong in ____, ____, and ____
    Recall, real life, and long delay situations
  55. Research on Encoding-Specificity: Physical vs. Mental context
    Physical context may not be as important as mental context...encoding-specificity principle may depend on how how two similar environments feel, rather than how they look.
  56. Encoding specificity can override ____ ____ ____.
    Levels of processing
  57. Suppose you are in the top floor of a library, and you suddenly think of some information you need on the main floor. You return to the main floor and find that you can't recall what you needed. After returning to the top floor, you recall instantly. This is an example of..?
    The encoding-specificity principle
  58. Two kinds of retrieval tasks
    Explicit and Implicit
  59. Explicit Memory Task
    A memory task in which participants are instructed to remember some information and then are given a recall or recognition test, requiring the retrieval of the previously learned information.
  60. The most common explicit memory test is ____.
    Recall
  61. Implicit Memory Task
    An indirect measure of memory; participants see the material and are instructed to perform a cognitive task that does not directly ask for recall or recognition. Memory is revealed without a conscious effort.
  62. Repetition Priming Task
    Recent exposure of a word increases the likelihood that you'll think of this particular word when you are subsequently presented with a cue that could evoke many different words.
  63. Explicit vs. Implicit Memory Tasks: Representative Research
    Even if people cannot remember stimuli when using an explicit memory task, they may remember the stimuli when tested using an implicit memory task.
  64. Dissociation
    Occurs when a variable has large effects on Test A, but little to no effect on Test B; OR when a variable has one kind of effect if measured by Test A, and the opposite effect if measured by Test B.
  65. Research on ____ ____ illustrates that people often know more than they can reveal in actual recall.
    Implicit Memory
  66. Amnesia
    Severe deficits in episodic memory
  67. What is the most common source of amnesia?
    Brain damage (trauma to the head, stroke, neurological disease)
  68. Retrograde Amnesia
    Loss of memory for events that occurred prior to the brain damage; deficit is especially severe for events that occurred during the years just before the damage.
  69. Anterograde Amnesia 
    The inability to form memories for events that occurred after brain damage.
  70. Hippocampus
    A structure located underneath the cortex that is important in many learning and memory tasks.
  71. H.M.
    • A man with severe epilepsy who had anterograde amnesia due to the removal of a portion of his temporal lobe and his hippocampus.
    • Had normal semantic memory and was able to recall events prior to the surgery, but could not for new memories
  72. Research done by Warrington and Weiskrrantz (1970)
    • Presented a list of words to people with anterograde amnesia and conducted recall and recognition tests. Compared to control group, individuals with amnesia preformed poorly on both explicit memory tests. 
    • The participants were also given implicit memory tests in which participants saw a mutilated image of the same words and were told to guess the correct word. Individuals with amnesia scored the same as individuals without.
  73. Expertise 
    A person's impressive memory abilities, as well as consistently exceptional performance on representative tasks in a particular area.
  74. Researchers have found a strong ____ ____ between knowledge in an area and memory performance in in that area.
    Positive correlation
  75. For experts, memories are well practiced. ____ produces better memories and the items come a chunk.
    Overlearning
  76. Experts possess a well-organized, carefully learned knowledge structure, which assists them in ____ and ____
    Encoding and retrieval
  77. How do experts and novices differ?

    1. Experts posses a well-organized, carefully learned knowledge structure, which assists them during both ____ and ____.
    Encoding and Retrieval
  78. How do experts and novices differ?

    2. Experts are more likely to reorganize the new material that they must recall, forming meaningful ____ in which related material is grouped together.
    Chunks
  79. How do experts and novices differ?

    3. Experts typicall have mire vivid ____ images for the items they must recall.
    Visual
  80. How do experts differ from novices?

    4. Experts work hard to emphasize the distinctiveness of each stimulus during ____.
    Encoding
  81. How do experts differ from novices?

    5. Experts ____ in a more strategic fashion.
    Rehearse
  82. How do experts differ from novices?

    6. Experts are better at ____ missing portions of information from material that partially remember.
    Reconstructing
  83. How do experts and novices differ?

    7. Experts are more skilled at ____ the difficulty of a task and at monitoring their progress on this task.
    Predicting
  84. Own-Ethnicity Bias
    You are generally more accurate in identifying members of your own ethnic background than members of another ethnic background.
  85. Faces representing your own background acquire distinctiveness.
    Ethnic
  86. Walkher and Hewstone (2006)
    • Studied facial recognition in British high school students who were either white or South Asian. 
    • Altered photos on a continuum from "South Asian" to "White"
    • The British White students made more accurate judgments for White faces than for South Asian faces. In contrast, British South Asian students were equally accurate for both kinds of faces.
  87. Overcoming own-ethnicity bias?
    (Hugenberg et al., 2010)
    People first need to know that they are likely to show the other-ethnicity effect. However, they can become more accurate in identifying people from other ethnic groups if they make a genuine effort to learn facial distinctions that are relevant for other ethnic groups.
  88. Own-age bias (Anastasi and Rhodes, 2003)
    • Younger adult and older adult participants.
    • Participants from these two age groups were more accurate in identifying people from their own age group.
  89. Autobiographical Memory
    Memory for events and issues related to yourself. Usually includes a verbal narrative and includes imagery about the event, emotional reactions, and procedural information.
  90. In autobiographical memory, storage goes better if it fits a ____.
    Schema
  91. In autobiographical memory, the dependent variable is ____.
    Memory accuracy
  92. Ecological Validity
    A principle of research design in which the research uses conditions that are similar to the natural setting where the results will be applied.
  93. Characteristics of Autobiographical Memory
    (3 items)
    • 1. Although we sometimes make errors, our memory is often accurate for a variety of of information.
    • 2. When people do make mistakes, these mistakes generally concern peripheral details and specific information about commonplace events, rather than central information about important events. 
    • 3. Our memories often blend together information from a variety of sources; we actively construct a unified memory at the time of retrieval.
  94. Schema
    General knowledge or expectation based on past experiences.
  95. We use schemas to guide our ____.
    Recall
  96. Consistency bias
    Tendency to exaggerate the consistency between our past feelings and beliefs and our current viewpoints.
  97. Source Monitoring
    Trying to identify the origin of a particular memory.
  98. Research by Marsh and colleagues (1997)
    Asked students to discuss an open ended question. After one week participants were told to identify whether each item on the list had been their own idea or someone else's idea. Seldom claimed an idea generated by someone else was their own idea.
  99. Reality Monitoring
    Trying to identify whether an event really occurred or was imagined.
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Psyc 3025: Human Learning and Cognition - Exam 2 *Ch. 5*
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Human Learning and cognition
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