lab 3

  1. What is a "non-woody" plant or grass?
  2. Do woody plants have both primary and secondary growth?
  3. What effect does secondary growth have on a tree?
    Increases the girth of the tree
  4. What is the primary function of the root system?
    Absorb water and minerals
  5. What is the primary function of the shoot system?
    Supports the leaf
  6. Does the internode get larger or smaller toward the apex of the stem? Why?
    Smaller, because the apex is actively growing
  7. Where is the terminal bud of a stem?
    Apex of the stem
  8. Where is the axillary bud?
  9. What is the wide/ flattened are of the leaf that's used for photosynthesis?
  10. What is the short stem that attaches the leaf to the main stem?
  11. What are the 3 specialized tissue systems in plants?
    Dermal tissue, Ground tissue, or vascular tissue
  12. Tissue system that contains epidermal cells that make up the epidermis, and is the outer covering of woody plants
    Dermal tissue
  13. Tissue system that forms bulk of the plant; includes the cortex, pith, and mesophyll
    Ground tissue
  14. Tissue system that consists of xylem and phloem
    Vascular tissue
  15. Contains hollow cells that transport water and minerals
  16. Contains sieve-tube members that transport organic nutrients
  17. Type of root that emerges from the seed and grows down
    Primary root
  18. Type of root formed from the primary root system; absorbs water/minerals, and anchors the plant
    Secondary roots
  19. Root system that absorbs water in a horizontal direction, and provides adaptive advantages in a rain forest
    Fibrous root system
  20. Root system that enable plants to anchor better, and provide adaptive advantages in dry places
    Taproot system
  21. Monocots: (4)
    • One cotyledon
    • Parallel veins in leaves
    • Petals in multiples of three
    • Scattered arrangement of vascular bundles
  22. Dicots (4)
    • Two cotyledons
    • Netlike veins in leaves
    • Petals are in 4s or 5s
    • Ring arrangement of vascular bundles
  23. Is the lilium plant a monocot or eudicot(dicot)? What characteristics of the leaves and petals identify it as such?
    • Monocot
    • Leaves: parallel veins
    • Petals:  multiples of three
  24. When we peel an orange before eating it, what tissue are we removing?
  25. What tissue of the orange is primarily being consumed?
  26. What is the pit that is found in fruits such as cherries or peaches?
  27. Outgrowths of epidermal cells that increase the surface area of the root
    Root hairs
  28. Lubricant that is secreted by the root cap so that the root may force its way through the soil
  29. Starch containing plastids
  30. What is the outer layer of cells that covers the stem and is coated by the cuticle?
  31. What is the area right inside of the endodermis? What can this structure produce?
    • Pericycle
    • Secondary roots
  32. Water-conducting cells in the xylem of angosperms
  33. Thin areas of tracheids where the cell walls of adjacent cells overlap
  34. Conducting cells in phloem that are alive at maturity; usually stained green
  35. Part of the stem that produces young leaves that attach to the stem at the node
    Shoot apical meristem
  36. The section between the young leaf and the stem that forms a branch or a flower
    Axillary Bud
  37. Contains the apical meristem, is at the stern tip, and is surrounded by bud scales
    Terminal Bud
  38. What occurs after leaves are shed at nodes along the length of the stem?
    Leaf scars
  39. What is visible within the leaf scars?
    Vascular bundle scars
  40. Waterproof substance that coats the epidermis
  41. Where is food stored in the stem? (2)
    • Cortex
    • Pith
  42. Sclerenchyma fibers (3)
    • Cells just outside of the phloem
    • Physical support of the stem
    • Used to make linen and rope
  43. What is the significance of coating the epidermis in cutin?
    It prevents water loss
  44. How does the arrangement of xylem and phloem in stems differ from that in roots?
    • Stems: arranged in bundles
    • Roots: Single cylinder
  45. Meristematic tissue between the phloem and the xylem of woody eudicots
    Vascular cambium
  46. Growth that results in the increase in thickness of a plant
    Secondary Growth
  47. Growth that causes the increase in length of a plant
    Primary growth
  48. How do you account for this seasonal production of different sized cells?
    Different seasons result in fluctuations of water supply and other resources
  49. What is teh common name for secondary xylem?
  50. What is "grain" in wood?
    Orientation of wood-cell fibers
  51. Aside from conducting water and minerals, what is another important function of secondary xylem?
  52. Pores contained in the epidermis that are surrounded by two guard cells
  53. Cells below the upper epidermis that are closely packed and contain about 50 chloroplasts per cell
    Palisade mesophyll cells
  54. Cells below the palisade layer that have numerous intercellular spaces
    Spongy mesophyll cells
  55. What is the function of the stomata?
    Gas exchange in the leaf
  56. Do epidermal cells of leaves have a cuticle? Why is this important?
    • Yes
    • Cuticle regulates the amount of water loss
  57. What are the functions of ar spaces near the lower surface of the leaf?
    Internal gas exchange
  58. Based on the arrangement of vascular tissue, how could you distinguish the upper versus lower surfaces of a leaf?
    • Xylem is near the surface
    • Phloem is lower
  59. Flowering plants
  60. What is a characteristic of angiosperms? They have an adaptation for effective pollination
  61. What are the main function of the sepal and the petals?
    • Sepal: protect fertile parts
    • Petals: attract pollinators
  62. What four parts make up a "complete" flower?
    • Stamens
    • Carpels
    • Sepals
    • Petals
  63. Outer ring of a flower that protects the developing flower when it is a bud
  64. Male flower structures  that produce pollen grains
  65. Where on the flower is the pollen produced?
  66. What is the structure of the flower that supports the anthers?
  67. Female flower structures that produce female gametophytes
  68. What is the structure at the top of the carpel that receives the pollen?
  69. What is the structure of the flower that encloses the ovules; found at the base of the carpel?
  70. What is a vegetable? (2)
    • Fake culinary word
    • "Non-sweet fruit"
  71. Group of simple fruits that are joined together when a single flower has numerous ovaries attached to the same flower
    Aggregate flower
  72. What kind of fruit is a single ovary from a single flower?
    Simple fruit
Card Set
lab 3
organization of flowering plants