represents the different steps involved in large-scale materials development and implementation projects with a two-axis figure. Time divisions are labeled across the horizontal axis and task divisions along the vertical axis
BICS vs. CALP
- BICS: basic interpersonal communicative skills (1~3 yrs.)
- oral communication skills (less contextualized)
- CALP: Cognitive academic language proficiency (5~7 years)
- academic language
- both oral and written
English for Specific Purposes (ESP)
Instruction for students with specific language learning goals directly related to their current or future academic, professional, or vocational lives and contexts
Common European Framework
- a project from the Council of Europe meant to be used for learning, teaching, and assessment of languages in Europe
- Fulcher sees it as flawed because it seems to serve a political agenda, instead of an educational agenda.
- instead of focusing what should be taught (methodology), it tends to focus on what the language learner has to know (content specifications)
- approach in which two languages are used as media of classroom instruction for the same group of students so that students receive some of their instruction n one language, and some in the other
- the portion of each language varies according to the program type, instructional goals, or contextual influences
- a series of related questions where the answers to each of the questions are combined in some way to construct an estimate of some underlying or abstract variable
- typically applied when seeking to measure things that can't be directly asked due to being either particularly technical (thus not explainable to a survey respondent), or, because they are ill-defined and a shotgun approach is required
- educational program that uses two languages as media of instruction from K-elementary levels of education (rarely though secondary ed)
- uses the two languages in roughly similar proportions in classroom instruction
Developmental/late-exit/maintanence bilingual education
- goal is to develop literacy skills in both the native language and the L2; develop biliteracy
- "maintenance": maintain the native language throughout the program
transitional/early-exit bilingual education
- the goal is to facilitate the speedy acquisition of the dominant language so that students can move into mainstream classrooms within three years of program entry
- serve young students who are recent immigrants to a new country (more likely to be language-minority students)
- there's oral use of the children's native language in the classroom
- the class may or may not teach literacy skills in the children's native language
- traditionally used to serve linguistically majority students e.g. native English speakers wanting to learn a 2nd language
- two-way immersion: used in the US where many programs follow a 90/10 model for the first six years of elementary instruction e.g. K= 90% Spanish and 10% English, 1st grade= 80% Spanish and 20% English
- develop literacy skills in both languages
- Non-native speakers are thrown into all-English classes without any native language or
- ESL support. (Now illegal in California, Florida).
Lau vs. Nichols
- This case paved the way for bilingual education.
- Chinese students in 1974 in San Francisco sued the state for not providing equal educational opportunities.
- Integrated Basic Education and Skills Training VESL program
- An ESL and vocational/technical instructor work together in the classroom to
- simultaneously teach English and basic technical skills need for a job.
- students receive literacy education and
- workforce skills.
- Adjunct or sometimes team-teaching.