1. needs anaylysis
    • gathering information to find out how much the Ss already know and what they still need to learn
    • Once the needs are identified, we can use them to make goals and objectives in the class
  2. goals
    • general statements concerning desirable and attainable program purposes and aims based on perceived language and situational needs based on the needs analysis
    • statements of the program's purposes
  3. objectives
    • specific statements that describe the particular knowledge, behaviors, and/or skills that the learner will be expected to know or perform at the end of a course or program
    • principle difference between goals and objectives is the level of specificity 
  4. program evaluation
    An ongoing process of collecting and analyzing relevant information to ensure that the program is effective and to improve it
  5. systematic curriculum development
    the process of modifying the curriculum in response to needs identified during ongoing program evaluation
  6. target group
    • people involved in the needs analysis about whom information will ultimately be gathered
    • usually the students in the program
  7. audience
    • people involved in the needs analysis and are required to act  upon the analysis
    • e.g. teachers, aides, program administrators, etc.
  8. discrepancy philosophy
    • information gathered in the needs analysis
    • needs are seen as differences or discrepancies between a desired performance from the Ss and what they are actually doing
  9. democratic philosophy
    • information gathered in the needs analysis
    • needs are defined as any changes that are desired by a majority of the group involved
  10. analytic philosophy
    • information gathered in the needs analysis
    • needs are whatever the Ss will naturally learn next based on what is known about them and the learning process involved
    • whatever is next in the developmental sequence or "hierarchy of language development"
  11. diagnostic philosophy
    • information gathered in the needs analysis
    • needs are seen as anything that would be harmful if it was missing
    • leads to the analysis of the language skills necessary in the TLU domain
  12. situation needs vs. language needs
    • there needs to be a balance between the two
    • situation needs: things impacting the program
    • language needs: details about the circumstances in which the language will be used, students' reasons for studying the language, etc.
  13. objective needs vs. subjective needs
    • objective needs: determined on the basis of clear-cut, observable data gathered about the situation, learners, the language they must eventually acquire, present ability levels, etc.
    • subjective needs: wants, desires, and expectations
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