Anatomy 1 - thoracic limb

  1. what is the panniculus (cutaneous trunci) response
    contraction of cutaneuos trunci muscles in response to a pin prick of trunk
  2. what is the reflex arch for the panniculus response
    sensation from skin of trunk over thoracic and lumbar spinal n. to spinal cord, up cord to lateral thoracic n. out to cutaneous trunci m.
  3. clinically what is the panniculus response used to evaluate
    level of thoracic spinal cord damage
  4. where is the spinal cord damage if the panniculus response disappears at the level of the 12th thoracic vertebrae
    level of T10 (segment 2 of vertbrae cranial to level of skin b/c nerves pass caudroventrally)
  5. what are signs of complete avulusion of the brachial plexus
    complete paralysis, extened flaccid limb, unable to support weight and dragging dorsum of paw
  6. does sensation to the caudolateral aspect of the arm rule out complete brachial plexus avulsion? Why?
    no b/c area innervated by the intercostobrachialis n. which doesn't arise from the brachial plexus
  7. what results from damage to the suprascapular nerve
  8. what is sweeney
    • atrophy of supra and infraspinatus m. = prominant scapular spine
    • (suprascapular nerve damage)
  9. what is the most common and clinically significant nerve problem of the forelimb
    radial paralysis
  10. what are the 2 types of radial nerve injury
    high and low radial nerve injury
  11. where are high and low radial nerve injuries located
    • high: before triceps,
    • low: after triceps
  12. what are signs of high radial nerve paralysis

    signs of low radial nerve damage
    inability to bear weight on limb, dropped elbow and knuckling over on digits

    knuckling over on digits
  13. to what common condition is low radial nerve paralysis a sequela
    fracture of the humerus
  14. what are 2 ways to tell if a nerve is damaged
    loss of skin sensation and loss of motor innervation (loss of function or spongy feel to muscles)
  15. what sensory loss is diagnostic for radial nerve injury
    loss of sensation on dorsal manus
  16. how is knuckling of radial nerve paralysis compensated
    flip the limb as it is advanced
  17. how is loss of motor neurons of the limbs determined
    observance of gait; depression of tone and reflexes; palpation of muscles atrophy
  18. how is loss of sensory neurons determined
    analgesia (loss of sensation
  19. what is the most cranial aspect of the upper forelimb
    point of te shoulder/ greater tubercle
  20. what palpable process separates the lateral surface of the scapula
    spine of scapula
  21. what is the palpable distal end of the spine of the scapula just proximal to the point of the shoulder
  22. what is the projection on the palmar and lateral side of the carpus
    accessory carpal bone
  23. the 2 scapulae form what structure
    • shoulder girdle
    • (cingulum membri thoracic)
  24. what connects the thoracic girdle to the axial skeleton
    muscle attachments: synarcosis (type of joint)
  25. list 3 of four fossae of the scapula
    infra and supraspinous, subscapular and glenoid fossae
  26. what fossa is caudal to the spine of the scapula
    infraspinous fossa
  27. what is the constricted part of scapula proximal to the glenoid cavity
    neck of scapula
  28. what is the small process on the medial side of the supraglenoid tubercule for the attachment of the coracobrachialis muscle
    coracoid process
  29. what is the bone of the brachium
  30. what 2 joints are associated with the humerus
    shoulder (scapulohumeral, humeral) and elbow
  31. with what does the glenoid cavity of the scapula articulate
    head of humerus
  32. what projection is located craniolateral to the head of the humerus
    greater tubercle
  33. what groove is between the greater and lesser humeral tubercles
    intertubercular (bicipital) groove
  34. what is the process on the medial side of the humeral head
    lesser tubecle
  35. what connects the head of the humerus with the body
  36. what is the cylindrical part of the humerus connecting the 2 heads
    shaft, body, or diaphysis
  37. what is the humeral process distal to the greater tubercle
    deltoid tuberosity
  38. what sulcus wraps around the lateal side of the humerus
    brachial groove
  39. what is the entire distal end of the humerus
  40. what arises from the epicondyles of the humerus
    • lateral(extensor) epicondyle: extensors of forearm
    • medial(flexor) epicondyle: flexors
  41. how are the epicondyles palpated
    locate elbow joint and feel most lateral and medial points just proximal to this joint
  42. what is the caudal excavation of the distal humerus that receives the anconeal process on extension of the elbow
    olecranon fossa
  43. radius and ulna form the skeleton of what area
    forearm or antebrachium
  44. name the 2 bones of the antebrachium
    radius and ulna
  45. what is the space between the ulna and radius
    interosseous space
  46. what is the point of the elbow
    olcranon/olcranon tuberosity
  47. what consists of the carpus, metacarpus and digital bones
    manus and forepaw
  48. what is another common name for the manus
  49. carpal bones of the wrist are arranged in how many rows
    2: proximal and distal
  50. carpal bones make up what structure of the limb
    carpus (human wrist)
  51. what are the carpal bone of the proximal row from medial to lateral
    radial, ulnar, and accessory carpal bones
  52. how are the bones of the distal carpal row named
    numbered from 1-4 from medial to lateral
  53. on what side of the limb are the radial and ulnar carpal bones respectively
    • radial: medial
    • ulnar:lateral
  54. what is the region between the carpus and the digits
  55. how many metacarpal bones does the dog have
    4 - 5 depending if there is a dew claw
  56. what subdivision of the manus corresponds to the fingers of man
  57. list the digital phalanges from proximal to distal
    • proximal, middle, distal (P1, P2, P3)
    • dewclaw lacks P2
  58. what is the tapered, cone-shaped process covered by a horny claw
    ungual process
  59. give 2 processes on the dog's distal phalanx
    ungual, extensor and flexor processes
  60. how many (proximal) palmar sesamoid bones does the dog have
    2 fo each main digit and 1 for dewclaw
  61. what bones make up the dew claw
    • 1st metacarpal/tarsal and 1st digit
    • (P1, P3 and 1 palmar sesamoid)
  62. what makes up the shoulder joint
    head of humerua and glenoid cavity of scapula
  63. what holds the biceps brachii tendon in the intertubercular groove
    transverse humeral ligament
  64. how does the tendon sheath of the biceps brachii m. relate to the shoulder joint in the dog
  65. what powerful muscle stabilizes the shoulder laterally
    infraspinatus tendon
  66. what large tendon stabilizes the shoulder medially
    subscapularis tendon
  67. what is the dense connective tissue surroundsing the shoulder joint
    joint capsule
  68. what is the shiny blue articular surface of the humeral head
    hyaline cartilage
  69. what are other names for the shoulder joint
    scapulohumeral, humeral articulation
  70. what is another name for the elbow joint
    cubital joint
  71. what tyoe of action does the elbow allow
    flexion and extension
  72. list the joints of the carpus
    • antebrachiocarpal
    • middle carpal
    • carpometacarpal joints
  73. what type of joint is the carpus ? what movement does it allow
    • compund/composite hinge joint
    • flexion and extension
    • (gliding and rotation)
  74. what are the intercarpal joints
    plane joints between individual carpal bones
  75. what is the thick, firmly-attached connective tissue that forms the smooth dorsal wall of the carpal canal
    palmar carpal fibrocartilage
  76. what are the main structures passing through the carpal canal
    DDF, median a. median n.
  77. what are the spaces between the metacarpal joints
    interosseous space
  78. what joint is between a metacarpal bone and a proximal phalanx
    metacarpophalangeal joint
  79. what are the 2 joints between the phalanges of each main digit
    proximal interdigital and distal interdigital (DIP or claw) joint
  80. what type of ligaments do all the digital joints have
    how does this affect their movement
    • medial and lateral collateral ligaments
    • limits to mainly flexion and extension
  81. what main muscles extend the different digital joints
    all by common and lateral digital extensors
  82. what is the loose irregular connective tissue deep to the skin
    • superficial fascia
    • SQ tissue
    • subsutis
    • (hypodermis, subsutaneous layer, SC tissue)
  83. what is fascia deep to the superficial fascia surrounding and compartmentalizing muscles
    deep fascia
  84. list 2 synonyms for superficial fasica
    subcutaneous (SQ or SC) connective tissue, hypodermis, subcutis, tela subcutanea
  85. what are the extensoions of the deep fascia compartmentalizing the muscles
  86. list 2 cutaneous muscles
    • cutaneous trunci
    • platysma
    • preputial/supramammary m.
  87. what muscle is divided by the clavicular intersection
    brachiocephalicus m.
  88. what is the fibrous remnant of the clavicle located cranial to the shoulder, transversing the brachiocphalicus m
    clavicular intersetion/ tendon
  89. what are the attachments of the serratus ventralis muscle
    last cranial vertebra and the cranial ribs to the medial scapula
  90. what extrinsic muscle lie deep to the trapezius muscle
    rhomboideus m.
  91. what is the tendinous intersection on the dorsal midline where some of the extrinsic muscle of the limb attach
    dorsal raphe
  92. what muscle extends from the spine and acromion of the scapula over the shoulder joint, to the deltoid tuberosity of the humerus
    deltoid or deltoideus m.
  93. what is the origin of the supraspinatus m.
    supraspinous fossa
  94. what is the origin of the infraspinatus m.
    • infraspinous fossa
    • greater tubercle
  95. does the shoulder have collateral ligaments
    what takes their place
    • no
    • replaced by subscapular, infraspinatus, suprspinatus, biceps brachii m.
    • (also teres major and minor, biceps brachii, corcacobrachialis, deltoideus m)
  96. what muscle flexes the elbow and extends the shoulder
    biceps brachii m
  97. what are the actions of the triceps brachii m
    main extensor of elbow and flexes the shoulder (long head)
  98. where do the heads of the triceps brachii m originate
    olecranon process of ulna
  99. what are the actions of the carniolateral forearm (antebrachial) m
    extensor: digits and carpus and supinators: paw
  100. of what do the caudal antebrachial muscles consit
    flexors: digits and carpus and pronator:paw
  101. what muscles arise on or near lateral (extensor) epicondyle
    extensors of the digits arise
  102. where do the caudal antebrachial (flexor) m. originate
    medial (flexor) epicondyle of humerus
  103. what nerve innervates the extensors of the digits and carpus
    radial n
  104. what 2 nerves innervates the extensors of the digits and carpus
    median and ulnar
  105. where does the common/long digital extensor insert
    distal phalanges (extensor process)
  106. where does the superficial digital flexor insert
    middle phalanges of digits 2-5
  107. what is the insertion of the deep digital flexor m. (DDF)
    distal phalanges
  108. what joint does the DDF affect that the SDF doesn't and why
    distal interphalangeal joint, crosses it, SDF doesn't
  109. what small m. in the superficial fascia of the forearm travels w the cephalic vein
    brachioradialis m
  110. if all the m are pathologically contracted, which prominate
    extensors = extensor rigidity
  111. what is a mnemonic to remember the order of extensor m. of the forearm
    • Every Cow Loves Us
    • (from Medial to lateral)
  112. what is the only significant m of the manus in vet med and why
    interosseous m b/c of importance in horse
  113. what is the sleeve of the superficail digital flexor tendon around the deep digital flexor tendon at the digits
    manica flexoria
  114. what is the direct continuation of the subclavian artery around the 1st rib to the thoracic limd
    Axillary a.
  115. what is the continuation of the axillary artery in the arm
    brachial a
  116. what artery courses between the radius and the ulna deep to the pronator quadratus m
    audal interosseous a
  117. what is the continuation of the brachial a supplying the forearm
    median a (after common interosseous a)
  118. what is the continuation of the median artery to the digits
    digital a
  119. what is the main blood supply to the digits (thoracic limb)
    median a
  120. list the main blood vessels supplying the thorcaic limb
    axillary, brachial, median, and digital a.
  121. how much clinical application does knowledge of the vacular supply of the digits have in carnivores
    litlle if any (Shively)
  122. into what parts can the venous system of the forelimb be divided
    deep and superficial veins
  123. where are the locations of the cephalic and accessory cephalic veins of the manus: where do they join and continue as the cephalic vein
    • cephalis palmar
    • accessory cephalicdorsal paw
    • meet above carpus
  124. what connects the cephalic vein to the brachial vein
    median cubital vein, cranial to the elbow
  125. what main thoracic limb vein return blood towards the heart
    cephalic and axillary v
  126. what are the lymph nodes of the thoracic limb
    • axillary (not palpable)
    • accessory axillary (inconsistent, palpable if present)
    • superficial cervical (palpable)
  127. where is the axillary lymph node located
    in axilla, caudal to axillary v
  128. what is the brachial plexus
    ventral branches of the last few cervical and first one or two thoracic spinal nerves
  129. what 2 muscles does the suprascapular nerve innervate
    supra and infraspinatus
  130. what bone does the suprascapula nerve cross
    cranial surface of the scapular neck
  131. the name nerves of the limbs carry what type of fibers
    sensory and motor fibers (ventral branch)
  132. what is the function of the cutaneous nerves
    carry sensory input from the skin to the central nervous system
  133. what is an area of skin innervated by a nerve
    cutaneous zone
  134. what is an area of skin supplied by only one nerve
    autonomus zone (AZ) or dermatome
  135. what nerves, that don't arise from the brachial plexus, innervate the skin of the caudolateral aspect of the arm
    intercostobrachialis n
  136. what nerve innervates the extensors of the elbow and is thus necessary for weight bearing
    radial n
  137. what is the mnemonic for remembering where the nerves come off the brachial plexus
    • SS-MAR-MU
    • SS - cranial (supraspinatus, subscapularis)
    • MAR - middle (musculocutaneous, axillary, radial)
    • MU - caudal (median, ulnar)
  138. what 2 nerves innervate the flexor m of the forearm
    median and ulnar n
  139. what nerve supplies the extensors of the elbow, carpus and digits
    radial n (extensor nerves)
  140. what is the course of the radial nerve in the forearm
    deep: into extensor m. of the digits, superficail branches to the skin of the dorsal forepaw
  141. where does the radial nerve first reach the skin
    lateral arm. under the border of the lateral triceps
  142. what is the autonomous cutaneous distribution of the superficail radial nerve
    dorsal paw (manus)
  143. what is the cutaneous innervation of the paw of the ulnar nerve
    abaxial 5th (lateral) digit
  144. what are the terminal branches of the median nerve
    medial and lateral palmar n
  145. list the bones of the proximal row of carpal bones from medial to lateral
    radial, ulnar, and accessory carpal bones
  146. what are the 2 small bones located at the metacarpophalangeal joints of the 4 weight bearing digits
    proximal palmar sesamoid bones
  147. where on the thoracic limb do we start using dorsal and palmar
    proximal end of carpus
  148. what is the normal appearance of the head of humerus in a film
    smooth and round, with no flattening
  149. what is the primary site for osteochondrosis in the dog
    caudal aspect of the head of the humerus
  150. how does the subchondral bone appear in OC of the shoulder
    flattening or cratering of caudal head of humerus with subchondral bone sclerosis
  151. what can cause subluxation of the humeral-radial joint
    premature closure of either proximal or distal radial physis
  152. can the distal physes of the forearm normally be palpated in young carnivores
    yes, considerably enlarged, palpate to carpus (flex carpus)
  153. what 2 methods of declawing ensure removal of the ungual crest
    removal of P3, or all (including ungual crest) but base of P3
  154. what is an onychectomy
    removal of a claw - declawing
  155. how is a declaw operation performed basically
    guillotine nail clipper: blade in dorsal - distal interphalangeal joint and other distal to digital pad
  156. why do some veterinarians leave the base of P3 in declawing
    preserve insertion of DDF and digital par
  157. why do some surgeons remove all of P3 in declawing
    to prevent sequestrum
  158. briefly describe a dewclaw removal in older dogs
    prep, anesthetic, elliptical excision, ligate metatarsal and dorsal proper digital a, disarticulate P1 from Mt1 of attached, if not just remove, suture
  159. what type of fractures often occur in the raius and ulna
  160. how are simple fractures of the ulna and radius often treated
    with external casts
  161. what is a Monteggia fracture
    fracture of the proximal 1/3 of the ulna with radial head luxation
  162. what is required when treating metacarpal/metatarsal fracturs for weight bearing
    metacarpal/metatarsals #3 and 4 must be aligned properly
  163. why are dogs dewclaws removed
    prevention of catching and tearin on things
  164. when are dewclaws of dogs best removed
  165. what is osteochondrosis
    disturbance of endochondral ossification affecting articular cartilage
  166. list 3 sites of osteochondrosis in the dog
    • head of humerus (#1)
    • troshlea of the humerus
    • medial coronoid process of the ulna
    • medial trochlea of talus
    • lateral condyle of the femur
  167. are luxations of the shoulder common in dogs
  168. what prevents luxtation of the shoulder
    thickenings of joint capsule (glenohumeral ligaments) and adjacent muscles
  169. what helps prevent luxation of the elbow of the dog
    anconeal process in the olecranaon fossa
  170. what can cause degneration of the elbow joint
    ununited anconeal process and fragmented medial coronoid process
  171. what is the lateral coronoid process of the ulna used to determine in lateral radiographs
    subluxation of the elbow
  172. how are ruptures of the collateral ligament of the elbow diagnosed
    by the amount of supination or pronation allowed, compared to the unaffected limb
  173. where and when can the olecranon bursa be palpated
    at the termination of the long head of the triceps when affected
  174. when does communication between the carpal synovial sacs become important
    when blocking the carpus in horses
  175. what may be required to diagnose carpal fractures
    oblique radiograchoic views
  176. what are the clinical signs of carpal luxation or subluxation
    plantigrade stance, nonweight bearing lameness
  177. what causes puppy carpal weakness and how does it present
    insuffiecient exerciese resulting in hyperextension of the carpus
  178. what is carpal flexion syndrome
    puppies stand on flexed carpi, they spontaneously recover
  179. what are the clinical signs, treatment and prognosis of old age laxity of the carpus
    • CS: plantigrade stance
    • no treatment is needed as dog does fine
  180. of what clinical importance are the superficail veins of the shoulder region
    must be retracted of ligated in surgical approaches to shoulder
  181. how is the cephalic vein raised for venipuncture
    finger pressure across lateral, cranila, and medial sides of elbow
  182. where is venipuncture usually preformed on the cephalic vein
    in the forearm above the carpus , start distally so that if you flub you can move up the are
  183. why is the external jugular vein, which passes superficially up the neck, hard to perform venipuncture into
    moves freely
  184. what nerves are involved in the panniculus response
    thoracic and lumbar nerves and lateral thoracic nerve from brachial plexus
  185. b/c spinal nerves pass caudoventrally, skin senstaion is associated with what spinal cord segment
    segment 2 vertebrae cranial to level of skin
  186. what common serious injury of all the nerves of the forelimb
    complete avulsion (tearing) of brachial plexus associated with HBC
  187. does sensation to the caudolateral aspect of the arm rule out complete brachial plexus avulsion
    no, b/c that area is innervated by the intercostobrahialis n which doesn't arise from the brachial plexus
  188. what results from damage to the suprascapular nerve
  189. how is loss of motor neurons of the limbs determined
    observance of gait; depression of tone and reflexes; palpation of muscle atrophy
  190. what makes the pint of the shoulder
    greater tubercle
  191. what is the palpable groove between the 2 tubercles of the humerus
    bicipital (intertubercular) groove
  192. what small lateral process is distal to the greater tubercle
    tendon of biceps brachii m
  193. what small lateral process is distal to the greater tubercle
    deltoid tubersoity
  194. how is the joint distal to the shoulder located
    be flexing and extending it - elbow
  195. what are the lateral - and medial - most points just proximal to the elbow
    lateral and medail epicondyles
  196. what is the palpable large process proximal and caudal to the elbow joint
    olecranon = point of the elbow
  197. what is the difficult to palpate distal end of the trohlear notch
    medail coronoid process
  198. how is the styloid process of the radius palpated
    flex antebrachiocarpal joint and feel distal end of radius on medial side
  199. what can be felt on the lateral side of the antebrachiocarpal joint
    styloid process of the ulna
  200. what is the joint distal to the elbow
    how is it found
    carpus, by flexing and extending it
  201. what are the palpable bones of the metacarpus
    metacarpal bones
  202. what are the palpable bones of the digits
  203. what are the palpable joints of the digits
    metacarpophalangeal, proximal and distal interphalangeal joints (PIP and DIP)
  204. what is the pad near the carpus
    carpal pad
  205. what pad is over the metacarpophalangeal joints
    metacarpal pad
  206. what are the pads over the digital joints
    digital pads
Card Set
Anatomy 1 - thoracic limb
rest of thoracic limb Q & A